Fields of Engineering, Electronics Fields with Career Opportunities

(Last Updated On: August 14, 2020)

Fields of Engineering

Table of Contents

Fields of Engineering, Description:

Fields of Engineering, Electronics Fields with Career Opportunities- Electrical Engineering is based on the principles from physics and mathematics origin of most high technology. Electrical engineering has many sub fields in which some of them we will discuss in detail one by one. I am going to share with you a complete list of all the engineering fields. But I will explain the ones related with the electrical and electronics engineering.

Fields of Engineering, List:

Chemical Engineering

  • Biomolecular Engineering

    • Genetic Engineering
    • Immunology and biomolecular/biochemical eningeering
    • Engineering of DNA and RNA
  • Materials Engineering

    • Metallurgical Engineering
    • Ceramic Engineering
    • Polymer Engineering
    • Crystal Engineering
    • Biomaterials Engineering
  • Molecular Engineering

  • Process Engineering

    • Petroleum Refinery Engineering
    • Plastic Engineering
    • Paper Engineering
    • Textile Engineering
  • Corrosion Engineering


Civil Engineering

  • Environment Engineering

    • Ecological Engineering
    • Fire Protection Engineering
    • Sanitary Engineering
    • Wastewater Engineering
    • Municipal or Urban Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering

    • Mining Engineering
    • Foundation Engineering
  • Structural Engineering

    • Earthquake Engineering
    • Wind Engineering
    • Architectural Engineering
    • Ocean Engineering
  • Mining Engineering

  • Transport Engineering

    • Traffic Engineering
    • Highway Engineering
    • Railway Systems Engineering
  • Utility Engineering

    • Subsurface Utility Engineering
  • Water Resources Engineering

    • Hydraulic Engineering
    • River Engineering
    • Coastal Engineering
    • Groundwater Engineering



Electrical Engineering

  • Electronic Engineering

    • Control Engineering
    • Telecommunications Engineering
    • Digital Electronics
    • Software Engineering
  • Computer Engineering

    • Software Engineering
    • Hardware Engineering
    • Network Engineering
  • Power Engineering

    • Power System Planning
    • Power System Design
    • Power System Operations and Control
    • Protection and Control
    • High Voltage Engineering
  • Optical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering

  • Acoustical Engineering

  • Manufacturing Engineering

  • Optomechnical Engineering

    • Fiber Optics
    • Laser Systems
    • Teleschopes
    • Cameras
    • Optical Instrumentation
  • Thermal Engineering

      • Air conditioning
      • Refrigeration
      • Heating, Ventilating
  • Sports Engineering

  • Vehicle Engineering

    • Automotive Engineering
    • Naval Architecture
    • Aerospace Engineering, airplanes, helicopters, drones, and spacecraft
    • Marine Engineering, boats, ships, oil rigs, and other marine vessels or structures
  • Power Plant Engineering

    • Geothermal Power Plants
    • Coal-fired Power Plants
    • Hydroelectric Power Plants
    • Diesel Engine(ICE) Power Plants
    • Wind Turbine Power Plants
    • Solar Power Plants
  • Energy Engineering


Interdisciplinary

  • Aerospace Engineering

  • Agricultural Engineering

    • Aquaculture Engineering
    • Biomechanical Engineering
    • Bioprocess Engineering
    • Biotechnical Engineering
    • Ecological Engineering
    • Food Engineering
    • Forest Engineering
    • Health and Safety Engineering
    • Natural Resources Engineering
    • Machinery Systems Engineering
    • Information and Electrical Systems Engineering
  • Applied Engineering

    • Automation/Control Systems/Mechatonics/Robotics
    • Computer-Aided Drawing and Design(CADD)
    • Construction
    • Electronics
    • General
    • Graphics
    • Nanotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical nanoengineering

    • Bioinstrumentation
    • Bioinformatics
    • Biomechanics
    • Biomaterial
    • Biomedical Optics
    • Biosignal processing
    • Biotechnology
    • Clinical Engineering
    • Medical Imaging
    • Neural Engineering
    • Pharmaceutical Engineering
    • Rehabilitation Engineering
    • Tissue Engineering
  • Biological Engineering

    • Bioacoustics
    • Biochemical engineering, processes that involve biological organisms or molecules such as bioreactors
    • Biosystems engineering
    • Biomedical engineering, the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical and biological sciences
    • Biotechnical engineering
    • Biomolecular engineering
    • Bioresource engineering
    • Bioprocess engineering
    • Cellular engineering
    • Genetic engineering, manipulate genes in organisms
    • Food and biological process engineering
    • Health and safety engineering
    • Microbiological engineering
    • Molecular engineering
    • Protein engineering, protein synthesis
    • Systems biology
    • Synthetic biology
  • Building Services Engineering

    • Architectural engineering
    • Mechanical engineering
    • Heating, ventilation and air conditioning
    • Refrigeration
    • Public health engineering: water services, drainage and plumbing
    • Electrical engineering
    • Lighting, including artificial and emergency lighting, low voltage systems, containment, distribution, distribution boards and switchgear
    • Lightning protection
    • Security, video and alarm systems
    • Escalators and lifts
    • Fire engineering, including fire detection and fire protection
    • Building façade engineering
    • Energy supply – gas, electricity and renewable sources
  • Energy Engineering

    • Solar Engineering
    • Wind Engineering, Wind Turbines
  • Information Engineering

    • Machine learning
    • Data science
    • Artificial intelligence
    • Control theory
    • Signal processing
    • Telecommunications
    • Image processing
    • Information theory
    • Computer vision
    • Natural language processing
    • Bioinformatics
    • Medical image computing
    • Autonomous robotics
    • Mobile robotics
  • Industrial Engineering

    • Manufacturing Engineering
    • Component Engineering
    • Systems Engineering
    • Construction Engineering
    • Safety Engineering
    • Reliability Engineering, Product Durabiltiy
  • Mechatronics Engineering

    • Robotics
    • Instrumentation engineering
    • Optomechatronics Engineering
    • Biomechatronics Engineering
    • Avionics, The design of Electronics and Systems on board an aircraft or spacecraft
  • Engineering Management

  • Military Engineering

    • Combat Engineering
  • Nanoengineering

    • Material Nanoengineering
    • Biomedical Nanoengineering
    • Instrumentation Engineering
    • Electronic Nanoengineering
  • Nuclear Engineering

    • Medical Physics
    • Nuclear Fuel
    • Radiation Protection
  • Petroleum Engineering

    • Reservoir Engineering
    • Drilling Engineering
    • Production Engineering
  • Project Engineering

    • Mechanical engineering
    • Process engineering
    • Instrumentation and control engineering
    • Civil engineering
    • Structural engineering
    • Environmental engineering
    • Electrical engineering
  • Railway Engineering

  • Software Engineering

    • Cryptographic Engineering
    • Information Technology Engineering
    • Teletraffic Engineering
    • Web Engineering
  • Supply Chain Engineering

    • Logistics
    • Pricing
    • Production
  • Systems Engineering

  • Textile Engineering

    • Apparel Engineering
    • Fabric engineering
    • Industrial & production engineering
    • Textile engineering management
    • Textile fashion & design
    • Textile machinery design & maintenance
    • Wet process engineering
    • Yarn engineering

Above are the different Fields of Engineering. Now, we will discuss a few which are related with the Electrical and Electronics engineering. So, let’s start with the Power Engineering.


Power engineering:

 Power engineering which is also known as the Power Systems Engineering. It deals with the distribution, generation, and transmission of electric power.

  • Transmission, Distribution  & generationof electric power
  • The devices related to the power engineering including electric generators, transformers and motors
  • In Power engineering we mostly study high voltages

In many areas of the world the governments maintain an electric network through Power Grid that can connect a number of electric generators by means of Power. This combination of Generators is called a “Power Grid”.

Fields of Engineering

The basic component of Power transmission is a Transformer which is used to distribute power. Transformers can convert power from higher to lower voltages and lower voltages to high voltage without the change in frequency. There are basically two types of transformers namely, Step-up and Step-down transformers. Step-up transformers are mostly present in Electrical Substations while step-down transformers are present mostly in our cities, home towns, malls, streets, etc. which step-down high voltage 11kv to 220v.

Devices that power engineers design and work with include transformers, generators, circuit breakers, transmission lines and relays. Some power engineers supply electricity to remote areas also working in smaller off grid. A separate area of expertise is transmission generation and distribution of power on stand-alone plants such as ships and planes.

Fields of Engineering

Career Opportunities in Power Engineering

  • To work as Design engineer to reduce losses during generation, transmission and distribution.
  • To work as Site engineer to implement all the planned activities
  • To work as Diagnostic Engineer  to link current condition to performance, estimate future conditions, performance and remaining life.
  • To work as maintenance engineer to check on the current systems and verify that they are being maintained properly.


Control engineering: 

In control engineering we design such system which gives yields the desired behavior in a controlled manner. Control system engineers analyze, design, and optimize complex systems which consist of different fields of engineering. Thus control engineering includes human and technological interfacing with a diverse range of dynamic systems. These systems are broadly referred to as control systems. Control Systems Engineering requires a broad skill set including computer software systems, electrical and mechanical.

Fields of Engineering

A Control Systems Engineer produces dynamic systems by designing, developing and implementation. Dynamic systems are systems that constantly change. Control engineer bring stability in the system.

Control engineering is very wide field. One example to help illustrate the role of a Control Systems Engineers is the development of anti-lock braking systems in cars. So, according to the definition above, a Control Systems Engineer in this situation will design, develop, and implement systems that control the behavior of the car’s brakes in various conditions, i.e. different speeds, road surface conditions, brake temperatures, etc.

How Control Systems Engineers Work

The Control Systems Engineer uses sensor to measures changes in the production line as an example. Crucially, sensor technology has advanced considerably over recent years making it possible to use sensors in a much wider range of applications.

Fields of Engineering

Most of the work a Control Systems Engineer does is on a computer using mathematical modeling. By using computer simulations, a Control Systems Engineer can determine how to control the system’s variables and, ultimately, the production line. They will then develop software, so this control can be applied in a real-world situation.

As automation technology is now so advanced and is becoming more common in manufacturing facilities, most Control Systems Engineers actually perform the role of Automation and Control Systems Engineers as much of their remit is to develop control systems that automate production lines.



Electronic engineering: 

Electronic engineering has long been a pioneering field, including radio, telephone and television. The modern day field covering everything from mobile phones to robotics.

Electronic engineers are responsible for the development, testing and design of devices, components or systems with an electrical power source. Electronic Engineering is often viewed as a subfield of electrical engineering. The distinction usually drawn between the two is the focus in electronic engineering on design and circuitry of individual components of a device, whilst electrical engineering focuses on power generation and transmission.

This discipline uses the nonlinear and active electrical components such as capacitors resistors transistor etc, for designing electronic devices and other systems. Electronic engineering is associated with electronic devices, circuits and the equipment and systems that use them. Electronic engineering utilizes a variety of different types of electronic components from the more traditional analogue components through to digital electronic components, microprocessors and microcontrollers as well as programmable logic devices.

Fields of Engineering

The electronics field is still in the midst of a revolution. In the early days electronics was a subject that included circuitry of vacuum tubes and physics.  The invention of transistor brings revolution in the field of electronics. Transistor minimizes the use of vacuum tube Except for high power and/or high frequency applications; the vacuum tube is seldom used. In low power applications circuits were not only entirely solid-state, but also integrated. The Operational Amplifier is rapidly becoming the basic building block for analog circuits, and the Very Large System Integration or VLSI is the product of the latest revolution in the development of integrated circuits. Digital computer Electronics is based on VLSI. Customized VLSI signal processing chips have been used to improve machine vision.

Electronic engineering includes many sub fields such as

  • power electronics
  • digital electronics
  • embedded systems
  • analogue electronics
  • consumer electronics
  1. Computer Electronics: The emphasis is on computer-related electronics
  2. Communication Electronics: The emphasis is on the physical implementation of a communication system
  3. Electronic Materials: new materials and new atomic dimension transistors and circuit elements. New ways for processing materials with nanometer dimensional scales
  4. Computer-Aided Analysis and Design: filter design and optimization techniques

Analogue electronic engineering:  

Analogue electronics is a major field electronic engineering. The analogue electronic engineer develops and maintains circuitry through testing and troubleshooting, as well as supervises the manufacturing process in plants and factories. Analog circuit design engineers may also provide safety and cost assessments. They typically conduct most of their work in offices and laboratories.

Radio frequency engineering:  

Radio frequency electronic engineering is becoming a key field and has grown in its size in recent years. With many more systems using wireless links, everything from mobile phones to Wi-Fi, IoT, Bluetooth, infrared, short range links and very much more used wireless technology. RF engineer quantify, characterize and optimize electrical and RF frequency performance of wireless systems and components. RF engineer Provide solutions to technical problems associated with Radio frequency, design schematics  and support layout of RF printed circuit boards. RF engineer check the radio frequency systems are installed working properly according to specifications and perform various electromagnetic tests in lab.


Programmable logic engineering:  

With the complexity of many logic / digitally based circuits, an approach that is being used increasingly is one where programmable logic chips are used. Programmable chips are produce with the help of  FPGAs and other programmable logic chips. Using high levels design languages like VHDL, etc, the design is brought to within manageable limits.  We can change the of project by changing the logic programme. This sector becoming more sophisticated and very interesting to use as it is growing day by day.

Signal processing:

Signal processing is the field of engineering which deals with the study, synthesis, and alteration of signals. It focuses on modifying, analyzing, and synthesizing signals such as images, sound and scientific measurements. Signal processing techniques helps us to storage efficiency, improve transmission, receiving of signals, and subjective quality and to also emphasize or detect components of interest in a measured signal.

Digital Signal Processing is sub field of signal processing which represent signal in digital domain, and with the transformation of such signal can be done with the help of DAC/ADC using digital computation. Digital Signal Processing is at the core field which is used in telecommunications, radar, medical and sonar, and in seismic data analysis.

Today mostly fields are using Digital Signal Processing such as automobile, mobile phone, CD player, , washing machine etc. In short, DSP is everywhere. Basically, DSP converts raw sensor input by using adc technique according to this technique the analogue signal is converted into digital signal.

About Signal Processing Functions

Signal processing deals  with two domains digital and analogue signals for analyzing, interpreting, and manipulation.

The following rules apply to signal processing functions:

  • Frequency is the core element in the signal processing which is generally measured in Hertz.
  • Fourier transform and Fourier series is the techniques used separate different parts of signals.

We need to have a strong background in signal processing to design application like for radar and wireless communication where we work with channel estimation, adaptive antennas and high-resolution methods.

We can spread technology to other areas by using signal processing. Examples of such projects include:

  • analysis of power quality signals
  • landmine detection
  • To make Engine or other safety application through signal processing
  • video communication
  • analysis of EEG and other biomedical signals

The mixture of basic research in statistical signal processing and new application areas has been fruitful and we plan to continue in the same spirit.

Genomic Signal Processing (GSP) is another field of signal processing which helps us for gaining biological knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications, where by genomic signals we mean the measurable events, principally the production of mRNA and protein carried out within the cell. Owing to the defining role of DNA in the production of mRNA, the structural characterization of DNA is inevitably a part of GSP and, interestingly, signal processing methods are utilized in understanding DNA structure.

 A deeper goal is to characterize genomic and proteomic regulation, thereby leading to a functional understanding of disease and the development of systems-based medical solutions


Telecommunications engineering: 

This field is centered on the electrical and computer engineering which is used to support telecommunications systems.  Telecommunication is very wide field its range is from basic circuit design to strategic mass developments. A telecommunication engineer is responsible for installation of telecommunications equipment, designing and overseeing the equipment’s. A telecom engineer design a complex electronic switching systems, optical fiber cabling IP networks and microwave transmission systems. Telecommunications engineering also overlaps with broadcast engineering.

Fields of Engineering

Telecommunication is a vast field of engineering connected to civil, electronic, and systems engineering. They help find the cost of money for different types of computers and technological objects. The work of telecom engineer is to provide data for transmission services. They use a variety of transport media and equipment such as routers, hubs, transmitters antennas etc to design the telecom network infrastructure. The most common medium that is used by telecom engineer are wired telecommunications or wireless communications which are optical fibers, twisted pair, coaxial cables, and . Telecommunications engineers also provide solutions in telecom sector revolving around wireless modes of communication and information transfer and improving the speed of communication in older days we used telephone which were based on wire medium but now telephone is replaced by mobile which is based on wireless medium and having more advance then telephone , such as wireless telephony services such as problems in 2G,3G etc , radio and satellite communications, and internet and broadband technologies.

What does a telecommunications engineer do?

Telecommunications engineers search for the location which is best for the signals transmission install, test and repair communications systems. This includes fixed-line and mobile telephone networks, copper wire and fiber-optic cabling and digital satellite systems. Work could include:

  • They install, connect and test the wired and wireless communication
  • They fix and diagnose faults in systems
  • They work on aerial rigging and various types of antennas
  • They installing mobile and static antennae on buildings, mountain for better communication
  • They build, design various types telecommunications components and equipment.

Instrumentation engineering: 

Instrumentation engineering deals with measuring, recording, configuration, design, automation of systems and calculating quantities of measuring instruments. Instrumentation engineers are employed at very positions in the industrial manufacturing sector and because he monitor and test the various equipment’s usually work in industries with automated processes, such as chemical or manufacturing plants or other industries with the goal of improving system reliability, productivity, and stability.

  • Instrumentation Engineers are responsible for the design, maintenance construction of the entire instrumentation systems and equipments of any industrial undertaking.
  • Instrumentation engineer Maintaining and modifying existing systems;
  • Instrumentation engineer is responsible for ensuring better quality and accurate type of instrument needed to industry.
  • Instrumentation engineer work with design engineers, operation engineers to purchase various equipment for the industry
  • Instrumentation Engineers help to make industry automatic by designing the actuators, positioning devices and robots for industrial automation.
  • Instrumentation engineers monitor measure physical quantities by using various monitoring software like scada through which we can monitor temperature, pressure and flow in an automated industrial environment.

Career Opportunities

  • Companies that manufacture instrumentation and control equipment
  • Power generating plants which used coal energy, gas energy, hydro energy, nuclear energy, solar energy , and wind energy
  • Electric load dispatch centers
  • Calibration and repair shops


Computer engineering: 

This field integrates the principles of computer science engineering and electronics engineering for the production of software and hardware systems. Computer engineering is now days very essential field in the world because every field used computer. Computer engineer create and design software for new or outdated equipment and make it run with software. Some engineers also oversee manufacturing and development processes, while others are more involved in testing software. Computer engineers mostly work on microcontrollers, microprocessors, super computers and personal computers. They do research to increase the speed of the system  now day super computers are introduce which are very fast.

Computer engineer work

Computer engineers are involved in writing software and firmware for various types of components such as

  • Embedded microcontrollers and microprocessors
  • VLSI microchips and FPGS
  • Analog sensors and digital sensors
  • mixed-signal circuit boards
  • real-time operating systems

They are also suited for intelligent systems and robotics a research, which relies heavily on various types of sensors interfacing digital  circuitry, control theory, and electrical through software.
The work and duty of software engineer is to:
• Design new and faster computer hardware
• Create mobile games and other informative applications
• Software engineer make software to run artificial intelligence systems
•Introduce different versions of  microprocessors to Update computer equipment
• Research and design computer chips, circuit boards and computer systems
• Assemble different parts of hardwares

The computer engineers are changing the world and making the life of the people easy by introducing the smart devices. They are at the forefront of fields such as machine intelligence ; cybersecurity;; networking; and embedded systems.

Areas of Study

All undergraduates in Computer Engineering study the following:

  • C and C++ programming languages
  • Efficient computer algorithms
  • Computer hardware and architectures
  • Computer networks
  • Computer interfacing
  • Digital system design
  • Microprocessor systems

Career Paths

Graduates of the computer engineering have many employment opportunities including :

  • Management and design
  • Computer, microprocessor and microcontrollers
  • Designing soft wares and mobile applications
  • Computer-aided design tools for aerospace, digital, , defense, and networked systems.


Nuclear Engineering

Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering which deals with the breaking of atomic nuclei such as fission and fusion chain reaction other sub-atomic processes based on the principles of nuclear physics. In the sub-field of nuclear fission in which the nuclei splits, it particularly includes the interaction, design and maintenance of systems and components we can like nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants are also helpful to produce electricity the energy obtain from these power plants are used to run turbines, and nuclear weapons which is helpful in defense of the country. The field also includes the study of medical and other applications of radiation, these radiations are used for the treatment of cancer or for breaking of stone in kidney. This field also includes chemical engineering and electrical engineering as well If you choose nuclear engineering, you could work in the following fields

  • Nuclear reactor design
  • medicine,
  • plant Operation and licensing,
  • space nuclear power
  • fuel management and development,
  • fusion research
  • radioactive waste disposal
  • health physics,
  • instrumentation and control
  • applications of radioisotopes in industry

What does a nuclear engineer do?

Nuclear engineers produce energy for domestic use and business in nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry supplies electricity to the nuclear power plants. The Duties of nuclear engineers   include:

  • Building and designing new equipment’s and power plants
  • Measuring and monitoring nuclear radiation levels
  • They perform maintenance work
  • Responsible for the safety and security of the nuclear reactor
  • supervise power station
  • Produce safe methods for the removal of nuclear waste

Satellite Engineering

Satellite Engineering deals with the study spacecraft. A satellite engineer control satellite equipment from the earth when it is placed in orbit by designing computer programs. These engineers may also monitor existing satellites already in orbit and test its communication system and functionality from the ground, they update the satellite programs and identify areas of improvement.

Work in satellite technology involves accuracy and precision; this is not a job for people who like to fudge numbers and estimate. Placing satellites in orbits as well as using them to obtain data is the work of satellite engineer. This field require extreme to form a theoretical orbit for the satellite so that it does not crash with other satellites already present in earth’s orbits. Guiding satellites also requires great precision. My article on the fields of engineering comes to an end. If you think I have missed any fields of engineering let me know in a comment. You can also let me know in a comment which fields of engineering you liked the most?

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About the Author: Engr Fahad

My name is Shahzada Fahad and I am an Electrical Engineer. I have been doing Job in UAE as a site engineer in an Electrical Construction Company. Currently, I am running my own YouTube channel "Electronic Clinic", and managing this Website. My Hobbies are * Watching Movies * Music * Martial Arts * Photography * Travelling * Make Sketches and so on...

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