Installation means the act of installing something. Connecting two things or recombining two things in such a specific configuration or sequence that a complete system builds as a result of their joining or conjugation, is called installation. Electrical installation means the provision of corresponding supply to electrical appliances or instruments and their induction together with the safety circuits. The electrical installation provides a safe source for connecting electrical appliances of a consumer with electrical supply through over current and earth leakage protection. It consists of all cables, pertinent safety components, and control gear. In short, fixing different types of circuits and electrical equipment on a panel, recombination of electrical components with an incomplete system for making a complete system thereof, installation of electrical wiring in a precise or correct fashion either temporarily or permanently, installation of protective gadgets, installation of service lines on a one floor or multi-floor buildings, installation of motors, installation of load and earthing system are all included in electrical installation. In fact, the electrical installation consists of a complete system of all types of electrical wiring and its associated electrical components or instruments, protection, testing, signal communication circuits, and entire instruments related to the electrical control, installed in residential and commercial buildings, industrial units, factories, and refineries, etc.
The following wiring systems or methods are used:
- Cleat Wiring System
- Batten Wiring System
- Casing Capping Wiring System
- Conduit Wiring System
Conduit wiring may further be classified into the following two types
(i). Surface Conduit Wiring
(ii). Concealed Conduit wiring
Batten Wiring System
A type of wiring which is done on concrete or ripe walls above a long and smooth wooden batten by means of passing wires through the buckle clips installed at an equal distance via brass kneels is known as batten wiring. In other words, in this form of the wiring system, wires are fitted on a smooth wooden batten with the help of clips. This wooden batten is fixed tightly on rowel plugs mounted above the wall through screws. This type of wiring is cheap and simple. The batten used in the batten system is normally made from hardwood, which is known as teak and it is available in various breadths in which 15, 20, 25, and 40-mm sizes are quite worth mentioning. Whereas the thickness of batten tends to be a minimum of 13 mm. Batten is chosen only keeping in view the number of wires to be used. The buckle clips being used for installing wires on the batten are normally made of iron or brass which are installed on the batten at equal distances through brass kneels. A distance of 10 cm is retained between the clips and clips are always used according to the batten size. Because a clip larger than the batten size poses a horrible look. The clip size ranges from 4 cm to 8 cm. in this type of wiring, single-core, double core, and three core cables can be used. This wiring is mostly used for a 250 volts supply. In batten wiring, VRI or PVC cables or wires are generally used. Remember, that wires are always installed on a batten in a parallel form. In figure 1.4, batten wiring has been illustrated.
Prior to application, the batten should be properly varnished in order to protect it from moisture and there should be no knot or joint on it. The clip is fixed on a batten in such a fashion that its hole-end remains on the lower side. Wires are kept in the clip center and then passed to the upper end from where they are turned back and passed through the hole on the bottom end, due to which wires become skintight within the clips.
At the time of fitting batten on walls, joints are also used as and where ever required. If one batten is desired to be passed over another batten, in such a situation a specific type of batten–made bridge joint is applied on the wires of the first batten for the purpose of insulation. For the protection of wires’ insulation, an extra batten piece is applied on corners or bends for the purposes of generating a round shape. If the length of one batten finishes up and the batten is desired to be moved forward, a straight joint is put on this spot. If wiring is desired to be carried upward or downward vertically, a vertical or “L” type joint is fixed at this spot. In order to bring wires upward or downward from batten passing through the wall, a “T” type joint is used. Whereas a cross joint is used for a batten leading from one place to a number of circuits.
Advantages of Batten Wiring System
(1). This method of wiring is simple and easy
(2). As compared to other wiring systems, this method is cheap
(3). If wiring is done in an expert manner, it looks very decent and seemly
(4). It is easy to find out fault or defect due to exposed wires
(5). This type of wiring system is enduring and durable
(6). Addition or alteration in this type of wiring system is relatively easy
(7). Repairing and looking after this type of wiring system is easy
(8). It has a long life
(9). This type of wiring can be installed easily and quite quickly
(10). There is a less possibility of current leakage in this type of wiring
Figure 1.4 Batten wiring
Disadvantages of Batten Wiring System
(1). This type of wiring cannot be used in places with high moisture chemical effects
(2). This wiring system is prone to catching fire
(3). It is not protected against weather effects and external concussions.
(4). As wires are visible, therefore they are affected by sunlight, dust, steam, smoke, etc.
(5). It is not possible to use quite a heavy wiring in this type of wiring system.
(6). It can be used up to 250 volts only
(7). A large quantity of cable is used under this system
Uses of Batten Wiring System
This wiring can be used in all those places where there is a minimal risk of chemical blows, getting fires, moisture, and other weather effects. Due to being seemly, economical, and enduring, this wiring system is massively used in offices, homes, hotels, laboratories, bungalows, and shops, etc.
(1). Batten wiring should not be installed near steam, gas, or oil pipes
(2). In case the number of wires is high, large-size clips should be used
(3). In order to pass wires through the roof or walls, PVC pipes or iron pipes should be used. Bush should be fitted on wires after they have been passed.
(4). Wiring should be done at least 5 feet from above the ground surface
(5). Batten size should always be selected according to the number of wires
(6). Bridges should always be used for crossing wires from one side to the other
(7). For electric accessories, wooden switchboards should be used and grooves of boards or round blocks should neither be too deep nor wide
(8). As iron buckle clips corrode or get rusty pretty quickly, therefore brass clips should be used as far as possible
(9). Appropriate size clips proportionate to the wire’s sizes should be used
(10). Batten should be varnished prior to its application so that it stays protected from moisture
(11). Instead of a horizontal direction, batten should always be installed in a parallel or a vertical direction
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