Internet: History of Internet, Network Backbone and How the Internet Works


Right now you are using the internet 😉 without the internet connection, you won’t have find this article. In this article we will study in detail about the Internet. The internet is the network of networks the world over. It is a global network of computers. It is comprised of thousands of more modest, public, territorial, administrative, scholastic and commercial networks.

The internet has reformed the computer and communication world. It is a significant communication tool utilized by commercial enterprises, and government organizations to help exchange operations, and association with clients and providers. Numerous people utilize the internet consistently, grinding away and at home. All through the world the internet is utilized as a primary source of communication and information services in excess of 650 million people, worldwide, utilize the internet.

An enormous number of books, papers, magazines, reference book, and different sorts of materials are accessible in electronic structure on the internet. We can discover information about nearly anything on earth and can get to most recent information or news on any subject. It implies that internet is an expanse of information.

Notwithstanding discovering information, we can communicate with others around the globe. Because of internet, out world has become a “Global Village”. Presently information can be gotten to from any piece of the world.

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Brief History of Internet:

The internet did not come into being just overnight – rather it was the end result of a research that had been in place since the late 1950s.

The cold war between the USA and Russia began in the mid of 1940s. in 1957, Russia launched Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite. In response to the launching of sputnik, the Americans established the advanced research projects Agency (ARPA) in 1958, ARPA was given the task of developing communication system.

In 1964, the USA made military intervention in Vietnam. In 1968, Russia also made military intervention in Czechoslovakia. America wanted to communicate with its armed forces in Vietnam. So at the end of 1960, the internet history began.

In 1964, Paul Baran Publised a paper on distributed communication networks. It was a theoretical idea of data transfer.

In 1969, Defense advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) of USA established a small computer network, it was named as ARPANet.  ARPANet stands for Research Project Agency Network. ARPANET was a network of four computers.

CSNet inter-network was created between 1975 and 1977, by a team of Wisconsin university. CSNet stands for Computer Science Network. This network was established to promote and to make research in the information technologies.

In 1970s Network control protocol (NCP) was developed. It was the first standard protocol for data transmission between host-to-host.

In 1974, TCP (Transmission Control Program) was designed for sharing and transferring data among different networks. In 1978, TCP was split into two parts namely;

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

Internet Protocol (TP)

In 1982, TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/internet Protocol) turned into the official communication protocol.

The possibility of computer networking before long got famous. During 1970s and 1980s a few colleges and examination organizations built up their own computer networks. Essentially, numerous different networks for military use were likewise evolved.

In 1986, the National Science Foundation (NSF), another federal agency of USA, set up an organization and named as NSFNet. It was set up for scholastic reason. It was open by everybody. Later it was extended everywhere on the nation. An enormous number of networks of colleges and examination focuses were connected to this networks, so they could share information. This enormous organization of computer networks was named as internet.

The internet has developed quickly since 1990. As indicated by internet society (the monitoring organization), the quantity of computer networks in the internet is in excess of 2,000,000. Also, the quantity of computers that connect to these networks is in excess of hundred million.

In 1991, the first www files were made accessible on the internet for downloading utilizing FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

Network Backbone:

The inward structure of the internet works a lot of like a transportation framework. The principle communication lines convey the heaviest measure of traffic on the internet these communication lines are alluded to as internet backbone. It can likewise be characterized as:

“the central structure or element of the organization, which connect different elements of the organization and handles the significant traffic, is known as the backbone”

The backbone is a high speed element. It is the significant communication link that ties internet servers across wide geological territories.

How the internet works:

There is no specific organization that controls the internet various networks of private organizations, government offices, research organizations, colleges and so forth, are interconnected. You can say that the internet is tremendous assortment of millions of computers, all linked together. This assortment networks permit the computers to speak with each another.


A personal computer can be linked to the internet utilizing a phone-line modem DSL or cable modem. This device is used to speak with the server of an internet administration provider(ISP). A computer in a business or college is generally connected with LAN utilizing network interface Card ( or LAN card), the LAN of college or business is connected to the server of ISP utilizing a fast phone line, for example, T1 line a T1 line can deal with roughly 1.5 million bits per second, An ordinary phone line utilizing a modem can deal with 30000 to 50000 bits per second.

We make our connection to ISP and ISP make its connection to larger ISP. The biggest ISPs keep up fiber-optic “backbone” for a whole area. Backbones around the globe are connected through fiber-optic line, under-ocean cables or through satellite links. Along these lines, each computer on the internet is connected to each other computer on the internet. The figure as shows how an internet functions.


An organization network, through which the files and messages can be traded among the clients of the organization just, is known as the intranet. This kind of organization utilizes similar protocols as utilized in the internet. Be that as it may, through intranet the information can’t be traded outside the



An extranet is an organization of numerous intranets. It implies that intranet of various organizations are connected together for sharing information among them. On an extranet, each connected organization gives chosen rights to the representatives of at least one than one organization to access its intranet.

Terminologies and Tools used for Internet:

The accompanying fundamental terminologies and tools are utilized for internet:-

Web Server:

A web server stores web pages or files and sends information over the internet because of request from the web browser. In 1992, there were just 26 web servers on the planet to publish web pages. Presently a-days a great many web servers are offering these types of assistance on the internet.

You can likewise set up your own web server. The web server software is accessible to set up a computer as web server. Your computer should be an amazing computer and permanently connected to the internet.


The tools and programs through which the user gets information from server just as sends information to other user through server is called client. Typically the personal computers and browser programs are utilized to get information from the server


The computer that are connected to the internet and trade information between users on the internet are called hosts. There is no central computer on the internet except for there are a huge number of host computers that can both send and get information to and from different hosts connected to the internet. Along these lines, each host on the internet acts both as a server and as a client.

Web Browser:

A web browser is software that permits the internet user to access and view web pages on the internet. The cycle to get the information of web page from server on the internet is called downloading. The downloading cycle takes few moments. This time relies upon the speed of your internet connection and the size of designs that a web page contains. Many web browsers are accessible yet the ordinarily utilized web browsers are Microsoft internet explorer and netscape navigator.

The mobile devices, for example, cell telephones and PDAs utilize a unique sort of browser, called a microbrowser, which intended for their little screens.

Internet Protocols:

The internet protocols are set of characterized rules and methods utilized for communication through which internet users trade information on the organization. The principal protocol was created in mid 1970s for data communication on network and was named as Network Control Protocol (NCP). Presently a-days, the ordinarily utilized protocol are:

TCP/IP : TCP/IP represents transmission control protocol/internet protocol. This protocol empowers users (or gives connectivity among browsers and servers) for data communication on the internet. TCP/IP manages the transmission of data in the internet by breaking the data into small pieces called packets. Each packet contains the following information:

  1. Actual data
  2. Destination
  3. Sender
  4. Sequence information used to reassemble the data at the destination etc

FTP : FTP represents file transfer protocol. This protocol trades files between users, it is extraordinarily intended for transferring and downloading sound, video, designs, and all other various sorts of files. The FTP software utilizes this protocol for transferring files on the internet. The instances of FTP software are :WS_FTP and Cute FTP.

HTTP: HTTP represents HyperText transfer protocol. It is a protocol utilized for communication among browsers and web servers (for example for transferring information from web pages, put away on the web server, to the browser). It was created in 1990 when World Wide Web was presented.

HTTP utilizes a request/reaction model of communication. A browser connects with a web server by setting up a TCP connection at port 80 of the server. This port is the location at which web servers tune in for browser requests. When a connection has been set up, a browser sends request (URL request) to the server. The server measures the browser’s request and sends a reaction back to the browser.

SMTP: SMTP represents Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This protocol is utilized to send and get email on the internet.

NNTP: NNTP represents network news transfer protocol. This protocol is utilized to trade message on the overall news notice board.

Web Page:

The documents on the web are called web pages. These are electronic documents put away on the uncommon servers known as web servers. The web servers are permanently connected to the internet.

A web page may contain straightforward content, pictures, and hyperlinks (or basically links). The web pages are linked to on another utilizing hyperlinks.

Web Site:

An assortment of related web pages put away on a web server is called website. The web browser is utilized to access website. A website may contain many web pages.

Home Page:

The principle page or title page of a website that contains the links of other web pages is alluded to as home page. The home page is downloaded first when you enter the URL address of the website. Different pages of the website are visited through home page since it contains the links of different pages. You can say that a home page is like the table of contents for the website.


HTML represents HyperText Markup Language. It is essential language, which is utilized to configuration web pages.


Frames are utilized in a web document to divide the browser window into various areas. In each part, a web page can be displayed. So simultaneously different pages can be displayed in a browser window.

Web Master:

A person who creates and keeps up websites is known as web master. Web master and other web developers configuration web pages/website.

URL Address:

URL represents Uniform Resource locator. It is a novel address of web page or some other file on the internet. It is utilized by the browser of client computer to access the documents put away on the host or web server. Following are some significant URL addresses as a models:

As appeared in the above URLs, every URL may have the following parts:

  1.  Prefix with protocol identifier, for example, “https” or “ftp” trailed by a colon and double slashes (//).
  2. The domain name.
  3. The path of the document. The forward slice (/) character is utilized in the document path.

Addressing Schemes:

The inspiration driving the internet is to develop communication between colossal amounts of computer wherever on the world. Computer can send and get data to each other. On the internet, every computer has an exceptional address. The computers talk with each other with the references to their addresses. These addresses are designated to the computers on the internet as per some course of action of rules. These rules are called addressing schemes.

There are two sorts of addressing schemes perceived on the internet. These are:

  1.  IP-Addressing
  2. DNS Addressing
  3.  IP Addressing:

IP represent Internet protocol. It is a one of a kind identifier for a host or node on the internet. It is numerical address with four number isolated with dots. An ordinary IP address resembles this the four numbers in an IP address are called octets. They can have values somewhere in the range of 0 and 255. Each machine on the internet has an interesting IP address. A server has Static IP address that doesn’t change. At the point when a home computer connects to the ISP, it is likewise assigned an address by ISP. This IP address is special for that session It isn’t static, when a similar computer will be connected next time, an alternate IP address will be assigned to it.

DNS Addressing:

DNS represents Domain Name System. IP addresses are hard to recall for the users. Each server (or host) on the internet additionally has an exceptional name. the intelligible name assigned to the computer (server) on the internet is known as the domain name. it is a typical and special book name and is option in contrast to an IP address. For instance, “” is a permanent, intelligible name it is simpler to recall than an IP address. The domain name has two sections a host name and domain. The domain is otherwise called top-level domain (TLD) the top-level domain indicates the sort of domain, for example, kind of organization. It comes at end of domain name isolated with speck (.) the regularly utilized top-level domains are ( .com ) , (.edu) , (.gov), (.organization)

A method of appointing domain name to IP addresses is called domain name system (DNS). DNS server is utilized to store domain names and their comparing IP addresses. The DNS server makes an interpretation of the domain name into the comparing IP address.


The technique that takes into consideration making link of one segment of document to another part or to another document is known as the hyperlink or essentially it is called link. The hyperlink might be made on any content or picture. The mouse pointer changes its shape (normally changes to hand shape) when it is over the link. It shows that the content or picture is interactive. At the point when the link is clicked, you jump to the segment or document that has the address under the link. Under the link, there might be URL of any web page or the particular segment name of a similar document.


ISP represents Internet Service Provider. It is an organization that gives the internet connections to the users. There are numerous ISP organizations in each enormous city of the nations of the world. You need to get an internet connection from ay ISP organization of your nearby city to connect to the internet. The ISP organization will give you, a username for your ID, a secret word for your account security and a telephone number to connect to its server computer. The well known ISPs in Pakistan are Comsats, WOL, Brain Net and PTCL and so on

How to Connect to Internet:

You should have internet account of any ISP (internet Service Provider) organization to connect to internet. In Pakistan there are numerous ISP organizations. Most Internet Service Providers have their internet cards accessible in your neighborhood market having measure of Rs,10 to Rs,100. The pace of internet charges is from Rs.2 to Rs.5 per hour. Buy the vehicle and adhere to the guidelines given on the card. It is extremely simple and quick approach to get internet account for internet connection. The following hardware and software are needed to connect to internet:


  • A computer running under windows operating system like windows 2000 and windows XP.
  • A telephone line to connect to ISP server.
  • A modem to trade information between user’s computer and server of ISP through telephone line.


  • Web Browser for perusing the internet like internet Explorer.
  • TCP/IP protocol. The windows operating system as of now incorporates the TCP/IP.
  • Dial up software to set up connection between your personal computer and the server of ISP. In windows operating system, you may need to run a wizard to initiate this software.

Internet Architecture:

The internet comprises of different sides: these are server side and client side.

Server Side: it comprises to web server, a database server and software improvement machine.

Client Side: it comprises of a computer that sends requests to the server and gets information from server.

Accessing the internet:

the internet can be accessed through various approaches to send and get information. The most mainstream strategy are:

  1. connecting through modem.
  2. Connecting through a LAN.
  3. Connection through high-speed lines.

Connecting through a Modem:

You can connect to the internet through modem. Along these lines, serial data communication port and dial-up utility program is utilized. The vast majority of the individual users connect to the internet by utilizing a telephone line, a modem of 56 kbps and a SLIP (Serial Line interface protocol) or PP (Point-to-point protocol) account. The majority of the ISP organizations provider these kinds of connections for home users and organizations. At the point when you connect to the ISP’s server computer, by dialing through a telephone number, you need to give your username, a secret phrase gave by that ISP Company.

Connecting through a LAN:

You can connect to the internet through a LAN, if LAN utilizes TCP/IP protocols and has an internet connection. This kind of connection is ordinarily utilized by business to give the LAN’s users internet access. As a matter of fact, the computer on the LAN connects to the internet through a router or modem

Connection through High Speed Lines:

The data accessing speed of modem connection is moderate. It is fine to access text data however it isn’t suitable to access graphics files or data like sound and video. Today connections of dedicated high-speed lines are accessible from various telephone organizations, cable TV services and so forth You can access data with exceptionally high-speed, for example at least multiple times quicker by utilizing fiber optics, microwaves, satellites and so forth

Communication on the internet:

TCP/IP is the main protocol used to send information around the internet. This protocol is answerable for steering information starting with one site then onto the next, and for sending information. The HTTP protocol characterizes how data must be communicated between the client and the server through TCP/IP. The TCP/IP is utilized to setup communication between a client and server on the internet. It separates data into datagrams (packets of data) and ensures that the data is accurately gotten at its destination.

Preferences of Internet:

The internet gives numerous offices to the individuals. The fundamental favorable circumstances of internet are as per the following:

Sharing Information:

You can impart information to others around the globe. The researchers or scientists can interface with one another to share information and to get direction and so on sharing information through internet is simple, modest and quick technique.

Assortment of Information:

A ton of information of various sorts is put away on the web servers on the internet. It implies that billions of websites contain diverse information as text and pictures. You can undoubtedly gather information on each topic of the world. For this reason, unique websites, called web indexes are accessible on the internet to look through information on each topic of the world. The most famous web indexes are,,,,,, and so forth the researchers, authors, designers, understudies and numerous others utilize these web crawlers to gather most recent information for various purposes. Normally, the information on internet is liberated from cost. The information on the internet is accessible nonstop.


You can get most recent information on the world on the internet. The greater part of the newspapers of the world are additionally accessible on the internet. They have their website from where you can get the most recent news about the occasions occurring on the planet. These websites are periodically updated or they are promptly update with most recent news when any occasion occur far and wide.

Looking through Jobs:

You can look through changed kinds of occupations everywhere on the world. A large portion of the organization/offices around the globe, promote their opportunities on the internet. The web indexes are likewise used to look through the positions on the internet. You can go after the necessary positions through internet.


Today, a large portion of the business organizations publicize their items through internet. It is modest and effective path for the publicizing of the items. The items can be introduced in alluring and powerful manner to the individuals around the globe.


You can speak with others through internet around the globe. You can talk by viewing to each other, similarly as you are conversing with your companions in your drawing room. For this reason, various services are given on the internet, for example,

  • Chatting
  • Video conferencing
  • E-mail
  • Internet communication and so on

Entertainment :

Internet additionally gives various sorts of amusement to the individuals. You can play internet games. Essentially, you can see motion pictures, listen music and so forth you can likewise make new companions on the internet for pleasure.

Online Education:

Internet gives the office to get online instruction. Numerous websites of various college give talks and instructional exercises on various subjects or topics. You can likewise download these talks or instructional exercises on your own computer. You can listen these talks consistently and get a great deal of information. It is extremely modest and simple approach to get instruction.

Online Results:

Today, the majority of the colleges and schooling sheets display results on the internet. The understudies can check their outcomes in any piece of nation or world.

Online Airlines and Railway Schedules:

Numerous Airline organizations and Pakistan railroad give their schedules of flights and prepares on the internet.

Online Medical Advice:

Numerous websites are likewise accessible on the internet to get information about various infections. You can counsel a board of online specialists to get advice about any clinical issue. Furthermore, a great deal of material is likewise accessible on the internet for research in clinical field.

Detriments of Internet:

Despite the fact that internet has numerous preferences however it has a few weaknesses as well.

The primary drawbacks are:


Today, internet is the most well-known wellspring of spreading viruses. The vast majority of the viruses transfer starting with one computer then onto the next through email or when information is downloaded on the internet. These viruses make various issues in your computer. For instance, they can influence the performance of your computer and harm important data and software put away in your computer.

Security Problems:

The important websites can be harmed by hackers and your significant data may be erased. Essentially, confidential data may likewise be accessed by unapproved persons.

Unethical behavior:

A few websites contain improper material as text, pictures or films and so on these websites harm the character of new age.

Filtration of Information:

At the point when a catchphrase is given to a web crawler to look through information of a particular topic, countless related links are displayed. For this situation, it gets hard to sift through the necessary information.

Exactness of Information:

A great deal of information about a specific topic is put away on the websites. Some information might be inaccurate or not bona fide. In this way, it gets hard to choose the right information. Now and then you might be befuddled about the precision of information.

Wastage of Time:

A great deal of time is squandered in gathering the information on the internet. A few people burn through a ton of time in visiting or in messing around. At home and in workplaces a large portion of individuals use internet with no sure reason.

English language issues:

A large portion of the information on the internet is accessible in English language. Thus, a few people can’t benefit the office of internet.

Services Provided by Internet:

Internet assumes significant part in our society. It gives a ton of most recent useful information about business, instruction and so on it has gotten the primary vehicle for commercial and communication between users and so forth the principle services gave by the internet are:

  • World Wide Web (WWW)
  • Newsgroups
  • Chatting
  • FTP
  • E-Commerce
  • Telnet
  • Gopher
  • E-mail (Electronic mail)


The World Wide Web is just alluded to as web. It is the most recent expansion to the internet to trade information. The web is an immense network of HTTP servers (Web servers) that stores documents called web pages and these are accessible on the internet. It is truncated as www or 3w. it is the most effortless approach to look and to get information on the internet.


News group are conversation groups or forums. They offer the types of assistance to trade messages on the internet about a specific subject. This office is given on the internet on unique servers known as News servers. Diverse newsgroups are accessible for various purposes. For instance, a newsgroup offers the types of assistance to trade information about business and another offers the types of assistance about current issues and so forth you can turn into the individual from any newsgroup on internet for reading and posting messages on the newsgroup. Typically the news client program “Microsoft internet News” is utilized to read and write articles in newsgroups.


FTP represents File Transfer protocol. It is a method of transferring files to others through internet. The files are put away an uncommon kind of server called the FTP server. The browsers can be utilized to transfer file from FTP server to the client computer however it is a moderate cycle to transfer files. A ton of FTP client programs of various software organizations are accessible through which files can be downloaded from FTP server into your neighborhood computer effectively and rapidly. Likewise, the files from your computer can be uploaded to the FTP server. Instances of these extraordinary programs are WS_FTP and Cute FTP.


Internet additionally gives the office to internet user to talk with individuals online everywhere on the world. Various programs like MSN Messenger, Yahoo Messenger, ICQ, AOL online and so forth, are accessible for talking on the internet. You can add names of your companions or others to these programs. These programs inform you when at least one individuals are on the web and afterward permit you to trade messages or files with them or join a private talk room. The visit room permits the users to participate in a talk on the internet. A visit room is a region on the web where you can converse with individuals on the web. You send messages by composing with console to the online individuals and get messages from others immediately. Some visit rooms support voice talks and video visits where you talk with individuals just as watch them.

Internet business:

Online business represents Electronic Commerce, it is a significant assistance given by internet through which monetary exchanges are completed over the internet. It is the advanced method to run business on international premise. At the point when business is directed with the assistance of computer networks, this movement is generally named as web based business or e-exchange. The instances of E-trade are; internet shopping, web based publicizing, web based banking and so forth

Through online business, products can be bought and sold from anyplace on the planet. Credit cards are utilized for installments. It is assessed that the size of online business is developing at a pace of 10% to 15% per month on the planet.


telnet is an internet administration (or device ) that is utilized to login and run orders (or programs) on a far off server on the internet. Through this administration, you can likewise access information on the internet. You run the telnet client application on your computer. The telnet gives you a prompt on your screen and you can access the host computer by providing orders through this prompt. You will feel that you are sitting before the host computer and operating it. At the point when you send orders to the host through this administration, information is accessed from host and displayed on your own computer screen.

When telnet client program is run on your neighborhood computer, you need to give your account name (user name) and secret word to begin the operating session. The expert users generally utilize this administration. In some far off servers, this administration isn’t permitted.


Gopher is an internet administration. It puts together resources into multilevel menus to make discovering information simpler on the internet. Prior to Gopher, it was hard to track down information on the internet.


Email represent electronic mail. It is the most mainstream administration or office gave by the internet. We can send and get messages anyplace on the planet. The message can be shipped off numerous persons with a solitary email.

You can likewise send documents, pictures, sound and video files through email by joining the file with email. It is likewise conceivable to send or get email messages through a mobile phone. The users frequently start search from the top-level and afterward moves inside the directory structure bit by bit. For instance, to look through information about wellbeing, the user chooses top-level of the directory “Wellbeing”. He/she at that point experiences its sub-classifications bit by bit to look through the necessary information.

Engr Fahad

My name is Shahzada Fahad and I am an Electrical Engineer. I have been doing Job in UAE as a site engineer in an Electrical Construction Company. Currently, I am running my own YouTube channel "Electronic Clinic", and managing this Website. My Hobbies are * Watching Movies * Music * Martial Arts * Photography * Travelling * Make Sketches and so on...

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