Flood Monitoring System with SMS Alert using Arduino and GSM

(Last Updated On: October 19, 2019)

Flood Monitoring System

Introduction:

Flood Monitoring System with SMS Alert using Arduino and GSM- Mostly floods occur due to the heavy rainfall, from the melting of ice and snow on mountains, or from the combination of all these when exceeds water carrying capacity of the Lake, River or Sea into which it flows. One of the major factors is the Geographical location that causes a flood to occur. Because of the Floods, precious lives including humans and animals, properties that worth millions are found destroyed.

Due to Floods, the roads are destroyed, road traffic becomes jam. The telecommunication systems are destroyed so that there left no way of communication. The diseases are spread, the Agricultural setup is so badly damaged that it takes a lot of time to bring it again into normal condition. There are thousands of situations when the local people don’t have the knowledge of flood occurring, due to which the people never get a chance to shift to a safer place, due to which they lose their loved ones, their important stuff at home, the animals, etc.

One other major problem that is faced during the flood situations is that the people have no idea where to shift, which road they should select to move to a new location. Because in such situation nobody exactly knows what is happening. If there was such type of a system that could inform the people in advance before the heavy disaster, the lives could be saved, because when flood increases it destroys the telecommunication system as well. So we need a much quicker and advance system to let the people know before the destruction occurs.


The components and tools used in this project can be purchased from Amazon, the components Purchase links are given below:

GSM sim900A Module: https://amzn.to/2MD4A5I
HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor: https://amzn.to/2Bas9xy
Arduino Uno: https://amzn.to/2tVz1vu
Mega 2560: https://amzn.to/2ze1kdu
LM7805 Voltage Regulator: https://amzn.to/2IZEl5x
Potentiometer: https://amzn.to/2JSLbfg
330-ohm resistors pack: https://amzn.to/2NtlAeh
5v 2A adaptor: https://amzn.to/2GsNfcw
2n2222 NPN transistors: https://amzn.to/2EmXsIb
10k Resistor: https://amzn.to/2KTd6OW
lm7805 Voltage Regulator: https://amzn.to/2IZEl5x
330-ohm resistors pack: https://amzn.to/2NtlAeh
LDR pack: https://amzn.to/2m2khGR
female DC power jack socket: https://amzn.to/2KEo1gt
470uf capacitors: https://amzn.to/2xDCOzf
5×7 cm Vero board: https://amzn.to/2OHGbvn
female headers: https://amzn.to/2zqmtiJ
connection wires: https://amzn.to/2DpBuW7
Super Starter kit for Beginners: https://amzn.to/2KJvmKG
Jumper Wires: https://amzn.to/2KMoVXs
Bread Board: https://amzn.to/2MS4q8X
12v Adaptor: https://amzn.to/2Ntr6h1
PCB plate: https://amzn.to/2IUwpCt
Variable Supply: https://amzn.to/2MT4Qfj
Digital Multimeter: https://amzn.to/2Nvft9i
Vero Board / stripboard: https://amzn.to/2MTf9jD
Soldering iron kit: “best” You guys should definitely purchase this: https://amzn.to/2zfoNuJ
Solder wire: https://amzn.to/2ufUMWf
Wire Stripper: https://amzn.to/2KOqxfU
wirecutter: https://amzn.to/2ucIq14
PCB small portable drill machine: https://amzn.to/2Nu62XF

DISCLAIMER:

Please Note: these are affiliate links. I may make a commission if you buy the components through these links. I would appreciate your support in this way!

 

FLOODS IN PAKISTAN:

  • if we look back at 2003 flood, The Sindh province was so badly affected due to the monsoon rainfall which was above the normal and caused flooding in the province; While the Thatta District we could say was the worst hit where four hundred and four “404”mm that’s 15.9 inches rainfall caused flash floods in the whole district. Approximately 484 people embraced death and around 4476 villages in the entire province were badly affected. [1][2][3]
  • In 2007, KPK “Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, The Sindh and coastal Balochistan were so badly affected because of the monsoon rainfall. These two provinces were affected by the CYCLONE YEMYIN in JUNE and then torrential rains in JULY and AUGUST, while KPK “khyber-Pakthunkhwa was affected due to the melting of glaciers companied by the heavy rainfall happened in the months of JULY and AUGUST. Around 130 people died and around 2000 were displaced in KPK in the month of July while 22 people died in AUGUST. while due to flash flood in Sindh and Balochistan about 815 people died. [4]
  • In 2010, due to the massive flooding which was caused by the record-breaking rains hit KPK and Punjab and due to which almost all of Pakistan was badly affected. The number of people affected in this flood was greater than the combined total individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Haiti earthquake 2010 and the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.[5] Approximately two thousand “2000” individuals died in this flooding and nearly 20 Million were affected by it.[6]
  • Another disaster that occurred in Sep 2012, in which more than 100 individuals died, and destroyed thousands of homes, and affected thousands of acres of arable land when severe rainfall battered KPK, Upper Sindh and Southern Punjab.
  • In August 2013, about 80 people died.
  • Similarly in Sep 2014 flooding due to the extreme rainfall in Azad Jammu and Kashmir as well as Jammu and Kashmir and in Punjab[7] created flooding in River Jhelum and River Chenab. [8]

There are so many other disasters due to the Flooding in Pakistan which I didn’t mention over here.  The destruction that flood brings cannot be expressed in words, The person who suffers from this can understand, and the ones who lose their loved ones and end up in destroyed homes can have an idea about the flood. I myself never come across a situation like this, and there might be millions like me. So that’s why I decided to develop such kind of Flood monitoring system that can inform the different local areas government personnel in advance before the flooding brings unstoppable destruction to those millions and billions of people.



Flood Monitoring System Project Overview:

The Flood Monitoring System project is entirely based on the GSM sim900A or GSM sim900D module, which will be interfaced with the most popular microcontroller “ATmega328”, the same microcontroller which is used in Arduino Uno.

A water level monitoring sensor will also be connected with this microcontroller to keep track of the water level. At present, I have decided to use the Ultrasonic Sensor for this purpose. But as I am studying and thinking about an alternative sensor that can be much cheaper and reliable than this one, if I am succeeded in making my own sensor for this job then I will replace the Ultrasonic sensor with my designed water level monitoring sensor.

In this project, we will be having the main monitoring station, which will be consisting of a computer. In this computer, we will be having a monitoring application installed, which we will design. This computer will be then connected with the Arduino Uno through a USB cable, the Arduino Uno will be then interfaced with the GSM module to receive messages from the flood monitoring module installed in different areas of the province or Pakistan if this project is implemented at the country level. The messages received will be given to the computer application to display the water level and the area from where this message is sent.  As this project is not at a prototype level, so I will have to keep all the factors in mind, like for example,

  • The cost of each component
  • Availability in Pakistani local market.
  • durability
  • size
  • weight
  • load
  • manufacturability ” whether this can be manufactured in my own country or not”
  • The enclosure designing
  • The enclosure material.
  • Cost per piece.
  • My own Sensor designing that can withstand the rough conditions and can have much more accuracy than the Ultrasonic Sensor.
  • cost reduction of PCB ” printed circuit board”
  • Company establishment cost ” if we set up a company for this ” to even export to other countries.
  • Maintenance cost.
  • ambient temperatures ” that can affect the devices or not “


Software that will be used in the making of Flood monitoring system:

  1. SolidWorks 2016
  2. Visual Basic ” For GUI application designing and programming”
  3. Proteus ” simulation”
  4. Arduino IDE ” c language programming”
  5. CadeSoft Eagle ” for schematics and PCB’s making”

Flood Monitoring System Project Objectives:

  1. Planning to start a business and helping the government and people around the world.
  2. Importing the GSM modules and other electronic equipment as needed.
  3. Simulation and assembling of the electronic devices.
  4. Coding in the GSM module by using Microsoft Visual Basic software.
  5. Perform economic Analyses for the business

Flood Monitoring System Project Problem Statement:

The main problem is how to protect the people from floods, how to stop the destruction caused by flooding still a question to be answered. Does the government need to invest millions in the technology to import monitoring systems from other countries?

A solution to the problem:

The main purpose of this project is to design such a project that can be implemented throughout Pakistan and other countries. But, as we know that implementation at such a large scale will result in a lot of money if we keep importing the PCBs, programs, enclosures, sensors, etc. So the solution to this problem is to design the majority of things ourselves by establishing a company. And only a few things can be imported from another country.  The designing chapter will be consisting of all the information about the type of machines that will be used in manufacturing, the type of material and its cost, all the necessary information on the basis of which a new company can be started.


Flood Monitoring System Literature Review:

Flood Detector Emergency Warning System:

On Floods so far Several literature studies have been conducted in order to gain the understanding and the knowledge to implement an advance flood monitoring system.  L. Siew Khaun et al was able to invent a system that could detect the water depth when it is over the standard level as specified by the sensor. This project was then placed where always a flood occurs.  This project had the ability to the flashlight as a warning and also inform the control room. In this project Radiofrequency transmitter and receiver were used for information communication.

This paper was published in the Internal Journal of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242 Volume 2 Issue 8 August 2013 Page No. 2332-2336

A River Water Level Monitoring System Using Android-Based Wireless Sensor Networks for a Flood Early Warning System

In this project, the water level monitoring was done using the android smart and ultrasonic sensors. In this project, the information about the flooding would be available on android applications. This system had an error rate of 1.121%.

DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-988-2_43

Publisher Name Springer, Singapore

Print ISBN 978-981-287-986-8

Flood Detector System using Arduino Uno

In this project the same ultrasonic sensor was used for the floodwater level monitoring, this project had no GUI application designed and no control room was there. This project was developed using the Arduino Uno and GSM.

International Journal of Management and Applied Science, ISSN: 2394-7926 Volume-2, Issue-7, Jul.-2016

The majority of the projects so far done almost uses the same techniques. Most of the projects make use of Ultrasonic sensors. None of these projects gave details about the cost analysis, the complete designing, safety, type of the enclosures, etc. As these projects were at the prototype level.

While this project is entirely different from the rest of the projects so far done. In this project, I will be using my own designed sensor which is more reliable, can be made locally, and most importantly it has zero percent error chance. Moreover, my project designing is at the province level, in which hundreds of monitoring systems will be installed at different locations, all these monitoring stations will then communicate with the main monitoring station with the help of the GSM module.

As my focus is on the business development. So, I will cover all the designing steps from schematics to final PCB’s, the enclosures, the material, cost, the dimensions, and the type of machine that will be needed. Besides this I will also develop my own controller board for the monitoring side so that the cost can be reduced. While in the main station Arduino Uno will be used. Later, I will show how much it will benefit if we will be using our own controller board.


Flood Monitoring System Circuit Diagram:

Flood Monitoring System

In the circuit diagram, you can see LM7805 voltage regulator is used. As the atmega328 controller needs regulated 5v. The advantage of using the regulator is that if the voltage at the input fluctuates the regulator will still keep the voltage at 5v. A 2.5v led is connected through a 330-ohm resistor. This value is calculated using the ohm law

V = IR

V = 5V

Led current = 20ma

So,   R = ( 5 – 2.5 ) / 20ma  = 125 ohm

The nearest value available is 330 ohm. This value can be easily found in any electronic shop. We always select a value that can be easily found in the market.

The GSM module is given 12v, it has a built-in 12v regulator so it doesn’t need a regulator. The Sensor used is simply consisting of the steel rods. One rod is connected with the 5v and the other roads are connected with the microcontroller inputs. So when water comes in connection with the rods the specified level can be found. The sensor’s physical construction will be shown in the sensor designing section.

COST ANALYSIS:

GSM MODULE: 6000 RS

ARDUINO UNO: 800

ULTRASONIC SENSOR : 600

total = 6000 + 800 + 600 = 7400Rs.

Now my designed controller board and sensor

Atmega328 = 70rs

Crystals = 10rs

Regulator = 10rs

Led = 1rs

Sensor = 200

GSM module = 6000rs

total =  70 + 10 + 10 + 1 + 200 + 6000 = 6290

and additional charge including the electricity and other charges.

6290 + 10 = 6300

Difference

7400 – 6290 = 1110Rs.

Just in one Monitoring station, we can save up to 1110Rs, which is such a great amount.

Now in terms of maintenance if we look at the Arduino that’s designed in such a way that it takes a lot of time in checking and troubleshooting. While my designed circuit can be fixed in mints and can be locally handled by any technician



Flood Monitoring System Proteus Simulation:

Flood Monitoring System

The Proteus simulation really helped me in testing my final Controller programming.

Download: Flood monitoring system simulation proteus

Flood Monitoring System PCB:

Flood Monitoring System

This PCB is designed in the Cadsoft Eagle 9.1.0 version. If you want to learn the basics about the schematic making and PCB designing then watch the video tutorial given below:

 

 

Board size: 2.7in by 2in

It was manually routed to best suit the PCB as desired. After making the PCB I printed the design on a glossy paper using a laserjet printer. Then with the help of the iron, I transferred the design on the copper plate. Then I prepared the ferric chloride acid solution to etch the PCB plate. Then after this, I drilled the PCB and installed the components.

I kept the PCB size small enough to reduce the cost per unit. Because the size of the PCB will have a major effect on the enclosure design, small PCB will result in a small enclosure while the larger PCB will result in a big enclosure. The larger enclosure will need more material, more injection pressure, more clamping force, and a big machine. Because when it comes to the Plastic Injection machines, the sizes of the machines varies as per the injection pressure and clamping force. These things will be discussed in detail when I will be making the plastic enclosure.

Testing and Troubleshooting:

After I completed the soldering job, before powering up the controller board, first I checked all the pins of the microcontroller whether they are short or not. Then I checked the voltage at the output of the regulator. During the testing, I found 2 pins short which I fixed using the solder sucker to suck the excess solder. Then it was ready for the interfacing.

Receiver Side Plastic enclosure designing

Before we start the enclosure designing, we should know exactly, what are the dimensions of the circuits and the locations of the ports? The type of GSM module I am using can be fixed on the top of the Arduino Uno, which will reduce the size of the plastic enclosure.

Flood Monitoring System

For the exact dimensions to be measured, first of all, I designed the Arduino Uno and GSM module in the SolidWorks and then with the help of the dimensions tool I found the width and height of the combined modules. The recorded dimensions are as follows.

Width = 81mm

Height = 29mm

Flood Monitoring System

First, I defined the walls with thickness as 2mm.

So the resulting dimensions after the enclosure is designed is

Width = 83

Height = 32

Final, enclosure picture in perspective view.

Flood Monitoring System

The Square hole is for the USB cable.

The large circular hole is for the GSM antenna.

A small hole is for the dc power jack.

Back view

Flood Monitoring System

The backside two holes are for the MIC and headphone. Because this GSM module is a GPRS type. We can make calls as well. The overall wall thickness of this enclosure is 2mm. 2mm is the most common thickness used for plastic parts.


The GSM, Arduino, and Enclosure all together:

Flood Monitoring System

Flood Monitoring System

As you can see in the picture the final receiver will need a small area. It’s in a compact form and can be placed anywhere on the table. This design is now portable it can be shifted to any area even the person can take it home and can connect it with the laptop to monitor.

Enclosure Analysis:

  • First, we will check whether the designed Enclosure can be manufactured if it has the defects how it can be fixed?

We will do the analysis in SolidWorks using Mold tools. So I started with the drafted analysis.

Flood Monitoring System

The green color shows the positive draft which is fine.

The walls having yellow color means that it needs a draft. Right now these walls are at 90 degrees which will result in maximum friction with the wall of the Aluminum mold. When the Plastic injection process is completed and we remove the part from the mold then it becomes hard to take out the part from the mold. So that’s why now we will change the draft angle so that the friction with the wall can be minimized. in most common practice a draft angle of 1 to 3 degree is used in small parts. In my case, I will apply a 2-degree draft.

Flood Monitoring System

Now it’s ready for the manufacturing process because this part can be easily ejected from the Aluminum Mold. As we can clearly see in the picture below, the walls are no more at 90 degrees. Now the walls have the draft.


Flood Monitoring System

Now we will select the type of material that we will be using.

For this enclosure, I decided to use ABS. This material can be easily found in Pakistan and other countries around the world. In Pakistan, this material costs 150Rs per Kg.

Mass properties

Flood Monitoring System

So now that the part is ready for manufacturing, the type of the material is also has been selected. Now we will start the Plastic analysis. For this purpose, we will be using Plastic analysis tools. In this analysis, we will find all the important parameters.

first, we select the polymerFlood Monitoring System

Now the injection location will be selected, and the nozzle size will be specified. Through this injection location, the part will be filled with plastic.  I selected the backside of the part and the nozzle size 4mm.

Flood Monitoring System

This is the final step before the Actual analysis will be started. In this step, we will be entering the temperature, the Mold temperature, injection pressure limit in Mpa. In this simulation, I am deciding to use the 100Mpa which is equal to 14503.8 PSI. It means the machine is capable of producing 14503.8 PSI. Now we will check whether our part can be designed using such machine or not? If we were able to make this part within these limits it means our design is safe.



Fill time

Flood Monitoring System

As you can see clearly the fill time for this part is 2.1952 Seconds.

This part can be successfully filled with an injection pressure of 31.0 MPa (4504.15 psi).

The injection pressure required to fill is less than 66% of the maximum injection pressure limit specified for this analysis, which means you are well under your specified limit.

You may be able to reduce the part thickness and decrease cooling time, but be sure to run an additional analysis after changing the thickness to ensure your part will still fill within the specified injection pressure limit.

Since the Maximum Temperature at End of Fill has remained within 10 deg C of the starting melt temperature, there is little to no risk of plastics material degradation.

The predicted cooling time is determined when 90% of the part temperature is less than the material ejection temperature.

From the injection pressure, we know that this part can be made even on smaller injection molding machines.

The pressure at the end of the fill

Flood Monitoring System

The central temperature at the end of fill

Flood Monitoring System

The average temperature at the end of fill

Flood Monitoring System

Temperature growth at the end of the fill

Flood Monitoring System



the sheer rate at the end of the fill

Flood Monitoring System

The small bubble at the top of the part shows the location where the air is trapped. So the Mold should be provided with the air vents for the air escape. If the air vents are not used then the final part will not look good.

cooling time

Flood Monitoring System

The cooling is about 24 seconds. It means that after the injection process we will have to wait for 24 seconds before we can remove the part from the mold. If we want to reduce the cooling time then the best choice is to use the water tubing in the mold to quickly cold the part.

Gate filling contribution

Flood Monitoring System

This part can be successfully filled with only one injection location.

Cost calculation per unit

In SolidWorks, we can easily find the mass of the part that we have designed. From the mass properties, we can find the grams and then we can know for per 1kg how many parts we can make, and then adding the electricity and labor cost we can estimate the final price of the unit. Look at the below picture.

Flood Monitoring System

You can see that the part weighs around 37.03 grams

With 1kg material, we can make 27 units.

As we know 1kg = 1000 grams

1000 / 37 = 27.0052 = 27 units.

The type of material we are using has a price of 150Rs per kg.

so the per-unit price will be

150 / 27 = 5.6 Rs.

Now as rule of thumb we can add 10rs more for the electricity, labor cost and other things.

5.6 + 10 = 15.6

So the final price will be 15.6Rs for this enclosure.


Water level monitoring side enclosure

Now you can run the same analysis for the receiver side Plastic enclosure.

Flood Monitoring System

Flood Monitoring System

Mass properties

Flood Monitoring System

as we know the per kg cost of the material is 150rs

150 / 21 = 7.14Rs

Adding other expenses.    7.14 + 10 = 17rs.

so the final price of this unit will 17rs.

Final cost Analysis

15.6Rs was the price of the first enclosure and 17Rs is the price of the other unit.

so both the enclosure can be manufactured at the cost of  15.6 + 17 =32.6 Rs.

from the business point of view which is the lowest price. In the market both the enclosure can be sold at a price more than 200Rs or even more. So the profit margin rate is high.

Machine size

As the injection pressure needed for the last part was high which was about 8163 PSI. So we will go for the machine with injection pressure approximately 9000 PSI. We are selecting high PSI as there can be some friction losses. The pressure tank should be capable of producing 9000 PSI. To keep the cost of the machine lower I will suggest a semi-automatic injection molding machine, consisting of only two pneumatic cylinders that can be operated with compressed air. The desired pneumatic cylinders and pressure tanks can be arranged by the dealers if they are given these values.

The 9000 PSI machine price as searched on the internet is

 Clamping Force (Toggle), 9000 PSI Max. Injection Pressure, 0-800 F, 120 VAC, $3,200.00.

” on eBay”

For the company to start we will need at least 4 rooms.

1 room for the machine.

1 room for the raw material.

1 room as an office

1 room for the circuits making and assembling.


Flood Monitoring System Water level Sensor:

Due to errors in Ultrasonic sensors, needs complicated programming, wastes the microcontroller processing time and moreover needs maintenance. It can generate false signals when anything comes in front of the sensor. I did a lot of research on this sensor and later decided to make my own Sensor that will generate no false signals, will need no maintenance, needs no complicated programming and can be easily connected with the microcontroller by anyone. The Sensor I am designing will be kept inside the 1inch diameter perforated pipe so that the water can enter into the pipe. Sensor construction can be easily seen in the picture below.

Dimensions of the water level monitoring sensor.

4 feet long.

1-inch diameter PVC pipe.

Consisting of 7 copper wires.

Flood Monitoring System

Sensor inside setup

Flood Monitoring System

You can see clearly all the wires are insulated from each other. The working principle is so easy. When the water comes in contact with the lowest wire and with any other wire above it will represent that level. Each wire represents a level. So, when the water level will increase above the normal level, the controller will send a message to the control room with the help of the GSM Module.



Flood Monitoring System Arduino Programming:

In this Flood Monitoring System, two programs are used, one program is written for the Transmitter side and the other program is written for the receiver side.

Flood Monitoring System Transmitter side Programming:

The Ultrasonic Sensor based program is more famous, so that’s why the following program is about the Ultrasonic Sensor.


Flood Monitoring System Receiver Side Programming:

Flood Monitoring System Computer Application Programming:

Flood Monitoring System

This is how the application form looks like. This application was designed in visual basic 6.0. But you can also design the same application using VB.net. I have so many tutorials on desktop application designing using VB.net. which are available on this website and also on my YouTube cannel Electronic Clinic”.


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About the Author: Engr Fahad

My name is Shahzada Fahad and I am an Electrical Engineer. I have been doing Job in UAE as a site engineer in an Electrical Construction Company. Currently, I am running my own YouTube channel "Electronic Clinic", and managing this Website. My Hobbies are * Watching Movies * Music * Martial Arts * Photography * Travelling * Make Sketches and so on...

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