Hybrid Robot Powered by Solar & Wind energy with Wireless control

(Last Updated On: December 24, 2019)

Hybrid Robot

Hybrid Robot Description:

Hybrid Robot Powered by Solar & Wind energy with Wireless control system- In this project you will learn how to make a Hybrid Robot that can be powered up using the Solar and Wind energy with complete wireless remote control system using 433Mhz Radio Frequency Transmitter and Receiver module. The control system is entirely based on the Arduino Uno.

The Forward, Reverse, Left, and Right movement of the Hybrid Robot is controlled using the Transmitter circuit consisting of the Pushbuttons. The 12 volt Battery charging can also be controlled using the transmitter circuit. We can activate the battery charging from the Solar Panel or from the Wind Turbine. We can disconnect the charging and we can also connect both the voltage sources “Solar & Wind”.

Relay based H-bridges are used to control the Forward and Reverse movements of the DC gear motors. The transmitter side will be powered up using the 9 volt battery. While, the receiver side is powered up using a 12 volt battery, which will be charged using the Solar and Wind energy. This is an ideal project for Engineering and B-tech students. This project can be further modified, some sensors can be installed for obstacle detection, etc. You can find more related projects in the related projects section given at the end.

For the practical demonstration watch video given at the end of this article.

Without any further delay, let’s get started!!!


The components and tools used in this project can be purchased from Amazon, the components Purchase links are given below:

Arduino Uno: https://amzn.to/2YxCle6
Mega 2560: https://amzn.to/2ze1kdu
433Mhz Radio Frequency Modules: https://amzn.to/374mC9F
12 volt DC gear Motors: https://amzn.to/2EGhFHX
Solar panel: https://amzn.to/2tJL4yD
Super Starter kit for Beginners https://amzn.to/2KJvmKG
Jumper Wires: https://amzn.to/2KMoVXs
Bread Board: https://amzn.to/2MS4q8X
12v Adaptor: https://amzn.to/2Ntr6h1
PCB plate: https://amzn.to/2IUwpCt
Variable Supply: https://amzn.to/2MT4Qfj
Digital Multimeter: https://amzn.to/2Nvft9i
Vero Board / strip board: https://amzn.to/2MTf9jD
Soldering iron kit:  “best” You guys should definitely purchase this https://amzn.to/2zfoNuJ
Solder wire: https://amzn.to/2ufUMWf
Wire Stripper: https://amzn.to/2KOqxfU
wire cutter: https://amzn.to/2ucIq14
PCB small portable drill machine: https://amzn.to/2Nu62XF

*Please Note: These are affiliate links. I may make a commission if you buy the components through these links. I would appreciate your support in this way!


About the DC Gear Motors used in this Project:

Makermotor 3/8″ D Shaft 12V DC Reversible Electric Gear Motor 50 RPM

Hybrid Robot

  • Rated Voltage: 13.5 VDC
  • 3/8″ shaft with 1 flat (“D” shaft) where flat to OD is 0.322″ and the length of the shaft is 0.886″ long
  • Rated Speed: 50 RPM
  • Mounting: M6 screw holes
  • Rated Torque: 6 N-m (4.4 ft-lb)


About the 433Mhz Radio Frequency TX and RX modules:

I have a very detailed tutorial on how to use the 433Mhz Radio Frequency transmitter and receiver modules.

Arduino 433Mhz rf transmitter and receiver

Solar Panel Used in this Project:

Hybrid Robot

ECO-WORTHY 10W Solar Panel 10 Watt 12 Volt Pv Solar Module,Solar Cell Panel

Click on the link below if you want to checkout 5 watts, 25 watts kit, and 25 watts.

https://amzn.to/371ISRy


Hybrid Robot Transmitter Circuit Diagram:

Hybrid Robot

The Hybrid Robot transmitter side circuit is very simple as you can see in the circuit diagram above. The Arduino Uno is powered up using a 9 volt battery. 8 Pushbuttons are connected with the Arduino Uno. As you can see one side of all the Pushbuttons are connected with the ground, while the other sides of all the Pushbuttons are connected with the Arduino Uno I/O pins.

The Pushbutton S1 which is connected with the Arduino’s pin number 2 is used to control the Forward movement of the Hybrid Robot. The Pushbuttons S2 and S3 which are connected with the Arduino’s pin number 4 and pin number 3 are used to control the Right and Left movement of the Hybrid Robot. The S4 switch which is connected with the Arduino’s pin number 5 is used to control the Reverse movement of the Hybrid Robot; you can also use this Pushbutton for stopping the Hybrid Robot.

The Pushbuttons S5 and S6 which are connected with the Arduino’s pin number 6 and pin number 7 are used to start and stop charging from the Solar Panel. The Pushbuttons S7 and S8 which are connected with the Arduino’s pin number 8 and pin number 9 are used to start and stop charging from the Wind Turbine.

The VCC pin of the 433Mhz RF transmitter module is connected with the Arduino’s 5v, ground of the transmitter module is connected with the Arduino’s ground while the Data pin of the 433Mhz RF transmitter module is connected with the Arduino’s pin number 12.

Note: you can increase the range a bit by soldering a wire with the Antenna pin of the Transmitter module.


Hybrid Robot Receiver Circuit Diagram:

Hybrid Robot

The Hybrid Robot receiver circuit looks a bit confusing or complex, but trust me it’s very simple and you will understand everything if you read the things I am going to explain.

The Arduino Uno and all the electronic components are powered up using the 12 volt Battery. All the ground are interconnected. Let’s start with the 433Mhz Radio Frequency receiver module. The VCC pin of the 433Mhz RF receiver module is connected with the Arduino’s 5v, ground of the receiver module is connected with the Arduino’s ground while the Data pin of the 433Mhz RF receiver module is connected with the Arduino’s pin number 11.

As you can see in the circuit diagram, each Motor is controlled using two relays. These relays are of the type SPDT “Single Pole Double Throw”. The connections of both the H-bridges are exactly the same except the Arduino pins. Let me explain what is an H-bridge and how it works.

An H-bridge is used to control the Forward and Reverse rotation/direction of the DC motor. The two relays in an H-bridge are used to change the polarity of the voltage supplied to the motor. As you can see in the circuit diagram, Normally Closed contacts of the relays are connected with the battery ground while the Normally Opened contacts of the relays are connected with the Battery 12 volts. While, the common contact of the relays are connected with the Motor terminals.

If you turn On one relay and keep the other relay OFF the motor rotates in one direction, and vice versa. The motor remains Off if both the relays are Turned OFF or Turned ON. If there is no change in the polarity the motor will remain OFF.

The two H-bridges are controlled using the Arduino’s pins 2, 3, 7, and 8. 5v from the Arduino turns on the relay, while the 0 “gnd” turns off the relay.

The two relays on the right side are used to control the charging of battery from the Solar Panel and Wind Turbine. You might have noticed one thing, I am using the same 2n2222 NPN transistors and 10k ohm resistors for controlling all the relays. The 2n2222 NPN transistor and 10k ohm resistor makes the relay driver circuit. Read my previous tutorial on the relay driver circuit designing and calculation.

Hybrid Robot

Download H-Bridge Proteus Simulation: robot

I checked the H-bridge connections using the Proteus simulation. I successfully controlled both the motors.

Hybrid Robot

Download the H-bridge PCB board layout: relay hbridge

After, I was satisfied with the testing and all the connections, then finally, I designed a PCB board for the H-bridge. In over load situation the copper wires can damage, I recommend apply solder to the wires this will increase the current ratings of the PCB wires.


Hybrid Robot Programming:

The Hybrid Robot project is based on two Arduino programs. One program is written for the Transmitter side Arduino, while the other Program is written for the Receiver side Arduino. Each program is well commented. If you still find anything confusing, you can let me know in a comment.

Hybrid Robot Transmitter Arduino Programming:


Hybrid Robot Receiver Arduino Programming:


Watch Video Tutorial:

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About the Author: Engr Fahad

My name is Shahzada Fahad and I am an Electrical Engineer. I have been doing Job in UAE as a site engineer in an Electrical Construction Company. Currently, I am running my own YouTube channel "Electronic Clinic", and managing this Website. My Hobbies are * Watching Movies * Music * Martial Arts * Photography * Travelling * Make Sketches and so on...

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