Venus: Facts, Size, Surface, Color and Temperature




Venus tends to be the second planet from the Sun and is Earth’s nearest planetary neighbor. It’s one of the four rocky or inner, terrestrial planets, and it’s frequently called Earth’s twin because it’s identical in density and size. These are not analogous twins, nonetheless – there are drastic disparities between the two worlds.

Venus has a toxic, thick, atmosphere crammed with carbon dioxide and it’s permanently shrouded in deep, yellowish clouds of sulfuric acid that snag heat, inducing an unbridled greenhouse impact. Though Mercury is near the Sun, it’s the hottest planet in our solar system. Surface temperatures on Venus tend to be around 900 degrees Fahrenheit (475 degrees Celsius), which is hot enough to dissolve lead. The surface is of a rusty, oxidized color and it’s scattered with extremely crunched mountains and thousands of enormous volcanoes. Scientists think it’s conceivable some volcanoes are still functional.

Venus has smashing air pressure at its surface – more than 90 times that of Earth – identical to the pressure you’d experience a mile underneath the ocean on Earth.

Another major disparity from Earth – Venus revolves on its axis backward, compared to the majority of the other planets in the solar system. This implies that, on Venus, the Sun ascends in the west and sets in the east, contrasting to what we experience on Earth. (Venus is not the solitary planet in our solar system with such an odd rotation – Uranus turns around on its side.)

Venus was the first planet to be investigated by a spacecraft – NASA’s Mariner 2 triumphantly flew by and inspected the cloud-covered world on Dec. 14, 1962. Since then, innumerable spacecraft from the U.S. and other space agencies have analyzed Venus, comprising NASA’s Magellan, which mapped out the planet’s surface with radar. Soviet spacecraft brought in the most victorious landings on the surface of Venus to date, but they didn’t endure long due to the harsh heat and mashing pressure. An American investigation, one of NASA’s Pioneer Venus Multiprobes, prevailed for about an hour after moving the surface in 1978.

More contemporary Venus missions comprise ESA’s Venus Express (which circled from 2006 until 2016) and Japan’s Akatsuki Venus Climate Orbiter (encircling since 2016).

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe has brought in numerous flybys of Venus. On Feb. 9, 2022, NASA declared the spacecraft had taken hold of its first visual light impressions of the surface of Venus from space during its February 2021 flyby.

In June 2021, three new missions to Venus were declared. NASA proclaimed two new missions, whereas ESA notified one:


Venus Emissivity or NASA’s VERITAS, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy, will be the foremost NASA spacecraft to investigate Venus since the 1990s. The spacecraft will embark no earlier than December 2027. It will encircle Venus, collecting data to indicate how the paths of Venus and Earth separated, and how Venus relinquished its probability to be a livable world.


NASA’s DAVINCI(Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging) assignment will undertake in the late 2020s. After examining the top of Venus’s environment, DAVINCI will drop an investigation to the surface. On its hour-long comedown, the investigation will take thousands of measurements and photograph up-close pictures of the surface. The investigation may not endure the landing, but if it does, it could furnish several minutes of premium science.

EnVision orbital mission to Venus:

ESA has assigned vision to bring in thorough observations of Venus. As a fundamental partner in the mission, NASA is furnishing the Synthetic Aperture Radar, called VenSAR, to make high-resolution measurements of the planet’s surface characteristics.

Venus is often called “Earth’s twin” because they’re identical in structure and size, but Venus has intensely harsh surface heat and a dense, toxic climate. If the Sun were as tall as an ordinary front door, Earth and Venus would each be around the size of a nickel.

Venus is the second nearest planet to the Sun, encircling at a pace of about 67 million miles (108 million kilometers)

Venus revolves very gradually on its axis – one day on Venus prevails 243 Earth days. The planet circles the Sun quicker than Earth, nevertheless, one year on Venus takes only approximately 225 Earth days, making a Venusian day more protracted than its year!

Venus has a solid surface wrapped in dome-like rifts, volcanoes, and mountains, with extensive vast, ridged plateaus, and volcanic plains.

The moderate surface of Venus is less than a billion years old, and perhaps as young as 150 million years old – which is fairly young from a geological viewpoint. This is a significant puzzle for scientists – they don’t understand precisely what occurred that caused Venus entirely resurface itself.

Venus’s dense atmosphere catches up heat developing an uncontrolled greenhouse impact – making it the hottest planet in our solar system with surface temperatures hot sufficiently to thaw lead. The greenhouse impact makes Venus approximately 700°F (390°C) hotter than it would be without a greenhouse impact.

Venus is perpetually surrounded by thick, toxic clouds of sulfuric acid that start at a height of 28 to 43 miles (45 to 70 kilometers). The clouds smell like spoiled eggs!

Venus was the first planet investigated by a spacecraft and was enormously studied early in the history of space discoveries. Venus was also the first planet whose surface was touched by a spacecraft from Earth. The fierce heat implies landers have only prevailed for a couple of hours.

Venus is an improbable place for life as we know it, but some scientists propound the idea that microbes might live high in the clouds where it’s cooler and the pressure is identical to Earth’s surface. Phosphine, a feasible benchmark of microbial life, has been scrutinized in the clouds.

Venus revolves backward on its axis like most planets in our solar system. This implies the Sun rises in the west and sets in the east, opposing to what we see on Earth.

Because it’s so brilliant and effortless to see in the sky, Venus has played a part in famous culture since archaic times, motivating writing and song.

It was dubbed the considerably gorgeous star in the sky by Homer, author of “The Iliad” and “The Odyssey” – two of the oldest and most crucial works in Greek publications.

More lately, Venus became a popular venue for 20th-century science fiction writers, comprising Edgar Rice Burroughs (“Pirates of Venus,” 1934);C.S. Lewis (“Perelandra,” 1943), and Arthur C. Clarke (“Before Eden,” 1961).

Venus tends to be the second planet from the Sun and Earth’s nearest planetary neighbor. Even though Mercury is near the Sun, Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system. Its dense atmosphere is full of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, and it has clouds of sulfuric acid. The atmosphere entangles heat, making it feel like a furnace on the surface. It’s so hot on Venus, the metal lead would dissolve.

Venus is sometimes called Earth’s twin because it’s identical in size and structure, but the planets are very distinct in other ways. Apart from being incredibly hot, Venus is extraordinary because it whirls in the opposing direction of Earth and most other planets. It also has a very slow cycle making its day longer than its year.

Venus is the second largest terrestrial (earthly, planetary)entity of the Solar System. It has a surface gravity narrowly lower than on Earth and has an extremely weak generated magnetosphere. The atmosphere of Venus primarily comprises carbon dioxide and is the thickest, densest, and hottest of the four terrestrial planets at the surface. With atmospheric pressure at the planet’s surface of approximately 92 times, the sea level pressure of Earth and a median temperature of 737 K (464 °C; 867 °F), the carbon dioxide gas at Venus’s surface is in the supercritical (above a critical threshold)stage of matter. Venus is wrapped by a filmy coating of inordinately reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, making it the planet with the elevated albedo (ratio of the return of light by an object that is not self-illuminating) in the Solar System. It may have had water oceans in the past, but after these vanished the temperature rose under a rampant greenhouse effect. The likelihood of life on Venus has long been a subject of presumption but persuading proof has yet to be established.

Similar to Mercury, Venus does not have any moons. Solar days on Venus, with a length of 117 Earth days, are simply about half as long as its solar year, encircling the Sun every 224.7 Earth days. This Venusian day length is a derivative of it revolving against its orbital motion, splitting its full sidereal (pertaining to stars) orbit period of 243 Earth days, the lengthiest of all the Solar System planets. Venus and Uranus are the only planets with such a retreating cycle, making the Sun move in their skies from their western horizon to their eastern. The orbit of Venus surrounding the Sun is the nearest to Earth’s orbit, authorizing them to move toward each other at an inferior intersection closer than any other planet, at a synodic period of 1.6 years, while Mercury draws near them more often the closest. The close orbit of Venus and Earth also results in the lowest gravitational potential disparity and lowest delta-v required to transfer from them to any other planet.

This has made Venus an exceptional target for earlier interplanetary investigations. It was the first planet beyond Earth spacecraft were dispatched to, beginning with Venera 1 in 1961, and the first planet to be arrived, impacted, and in 1970 triumphantly touched on by Venera 7. As one of the most luminous objects in the sky, Venus has been a significant matter in human culture for as long as records have lived.

Venus is one of the four terrestrial (earthly, planetary) planets in the Solar System, implying that it is a stony or rocky body like Earth. It is identical to Earth in size and mass and is frequently depicted as Earth’s “sister” or “twin”. The diameter of Venus is around 12,103.6 km (7,520.8 mi)—only 638.4 km (396.7 mi) smaller than Earth’s—and its mass is 81.5% of Earth’s. Situations on the Venusian surface contradict basically from those on Earth because its dense atmosphere comprises 96.5% carbon dioxide, with most of the remaining 3.5% portion being nitrogen. The surface pressure tends to be 9.3 megapascals (93 bars), and the mean surface temperature is 737 K (464 °C; 867 °F), above the crucial points of both main constituents, rendering the surface atmosphere a supercritical fluid.

The Venusian surface was a topic of supposition until some of its mysteries were disclosed by planetary science in the 20th century. Venera landers in 1975 and 1982 produced images of a surface wrapped in deposits and somewhat angular rocks. The surface was mapped out in detail by Magellan in 1990–91. The ground reveals proof of vast volcanism, and the sulfur in the atmosphere may demonstrate that there have been incidents of recent eruptions.

About 80% of the Venusian surface is coated by smooth, volcanic plains, comprising 70% plains with ruffled ridges and 10% lobate or smooth plains. Two highland “continents” make up the remainder of its surface area, one lying in the planet’s northern hemisphere and the other only south of the equatorial. The northern continent is known as Ishtar Terra after Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess of love, and is nearly the size of Australia. Maxwell Montes, the highest mountain on Venus, spreads out at Ishtar Terra. Its peak is 11 km (7 mi) above the Venusian standard surface height. The southern continent is known as Aphrodite Terra, after the Greek goddess of love, and is the larger of the two highland areas at approximately the size of South America. A network of ruptures and faults encircles much of this region.

The dearth of proof of lava discharge escorting any of the observable calderas remains a mystery. The planet has few impact craters, indicating that the surface is somewhat young, at 300–600 million years old. Venus has some distinctive surface characteristics in addition to the impact craters, valleys, and mountains, generally found on rocky planets. Among these are flat-topped volcanic characteristics called “Farra”, which look fairly like pancakes and span in size from 20 to 50 km (12 to 31 mi) across, and from 100 to 1,000 m (330 to 3,280 ft) high; radial, star-like rupture systems called “novae”; characterizes with both radial and concentric fractures comparing spider webs, known as “arachnoids”; and “coronae”, circular rings of fractures sometimes encircled by a depression. These characteristics are volcanic in origin.

Venus has an exceptionally dense atmosphere formulated of 96.5% carbon dioxide, and 3.5% nitrogen, both existing as supercritical fluids at the planet’s surface, and glimmers of other gases containing sulfur dioxide. The mass of its atmosphere is 92 times that of Earth’s, while the pressure at its surface is approximately 93 times that of Earth’s.

To the naked eye, Venus seems like a white juncture of light shinier than any other planet or star (apart from the Sun). The planet’s average evident magnitude is −4.14 with a standard deviation of 0.31. The most luminous magnitude happens during the crescent phase about one month before or after an inferior intersection. Venus wanes to about magnitude −3 when it is illuminated from behind by the Sun. The planet is brilliant sufficiently to be seen in general daylight but is better readily observable when the Sun is low on the horizon or setting. As an inferior planet, it invariably locates within about 47° of the Sun.

Venus surpasses Earth every 584 days as it encircles the Sun. As it does so, it transforms from the “Evening Star”, observable after sunset, to the “Morning Star”, visible before sunrise. Although Mercury, the other inferior planet, reaches a maximum lengthening of only 28° and is usually difficult to determine in the twilight, Venus is difficult to miss when it is at its most luminous state. Its greater maximum stretching implies it is visible in dark skies long after sunset. As the most luminous point-like object in the sky, Venus is generally misreported as being an “unidentified flying object”.

While the surface situations of Venus are very unfriendly, the atmospheric pressure and temperature fifty kilometers above the surface are identical to those at Earth’s surface. With this in mind, the Soviet engineer Sergey Zhitomirskiy (1929–2004) in 1971 and more recently NASA aerospace engineer Geoffrey A. Landis in 2003 proposed the use of aerostats for crewed investigation and probably for enduring “floating cities” in the Venusian atmosphere, a substitute to the widespread notion of living on planetary surfaces such as Mars. Among the numerous engineering challenges for any human existence in the atmosphere of Venus are the sarcastic quantities of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere.

Venus is the spot of the very first interplanetary human existence, adjudicated through robotic missions, with the foremost victorious landings on another planet and extraterrestrial body other than the Moon. Venus was at the outset of the space age often visited by space investigations until the 1990s. Currently in orbit is Akatsuki, and the Parker Solar Probe ordinarily employs Venus for gravity assist strategies.

The only country that has successfully sent lander probes missions to the surface of Venus has been the Soviet Union, which has been employed by Russian officials to call Venus a “Russian planet”.

Engr Fahad

My name is Shahzada Fahad and I am an Electrical Engineer. I have been doing Job in UAE as a site engineer in an Electrical Construction Company. Currently, I am running my own YouTube channel "Electronic Clinic", and managing this Website. My Hobbies are * Watching Movies * Music * Martial Arts * Photography * Travelling * Make Sketches and so on...

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