Basic Electronics

Linear integrated circuits; Analogue and Digital integrated circuits

Analogue Integrated Circuits or (Linear Integrated Circuits)

The output of this type of integrated circuit is normally directly proportional to its inputs i.e. their inputs and outputs increase together up to a certain value. When signals are supplied on analogue integrated circuits, it performs amplification and other important linear operations. Analogue Integrated circuits are very rarely used compared to digital Integrated circuits. However, the analogue Integrated circuits are very reliable due to their low external connections.

A specific linear chip is used as an amplifier. When IC is provided with a signal or several signals, it produces a reasonable output or outputs. Continuous electrical signals exist between limiting values of both inputs and outputs. A specific IC is used in an audio amplifier. Input signals of a simple linear IC have been shown in figure 8.19.

Manufacturers of Linear integrated circuits use a specific code and type number for identification and representation of their brand of ICs. For example, Op-amp 714 (operational amplifier 714) manufactured by Fair Child are denoted by µA741. Here, µA means identification code, which has been used by Fair Child. A number of other manufacturers also manufacture 741 number Linear integrated circuits, however, they use separate codes with it (though the number is the same). For instance, when µA 741 was fabricated by other manufacturers, the following codes had been used:

Figure 8.19 – Terminal assignment

Classification of ICs

1). National semiconductor …LM741

2). Motorola … MC1741

3). RCA … CA3741

4). Texas Instruments … SN5274

Specifications of all these amplifiers are same. Only code number of every manufacturer is different, which is practically ignored normally and all Linear integrated circuits of this type are known as just 741. Analogue Linear integrated circuits are used in analogue computers e.g. OP-741 is used as differentiation, grater and summing. Apart from its application in military and industries, Linear integrated circuits are also used vastly in consumer products. Some important forms of analogue integrated circuits are as follows:

Operational amplifier Small signal amplifier
Power amplifier RF and IF amplifier
Microwave amplifier Multipliers
Voltage comparators Voltage regulators

Digital Integrated Circuits

Digital Integrated circuits consists of circuits the output and input levels of which are confined to just two levels i.e. low or high. That’s in such type of circuits input and output has just two values (i.e. 0 and 1). Its main reason is that digital signals are mostly binary (binary means a system consisting of two numbers). In other words, digital system can be represented by just two numbers. One of the numbers is used for low signals (i.e. zero) and the other one for high signals (i.e. 1). Digital circuit is also sometimes called a switching circuit. Around 80% of the ICs available in the market are of digital type, which are most frequently used in computer industry. Remember that relatively small number of capacitors having low voltage and low current and few resistors of low values are used in digital Integrated circuits. Mostly, logic gates (i.e. AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR and EX-OR) used in such type of ICs. Transistors or diodes used in digital ICs only perform ON or OFF operation. Therefore, designing of a digital circuit is relatively easy as compared to an analogue circuit. Digital ICs comprises following circuits.

1). Logic gates 2). Flip flops 3). Counters 4). Clock chips 5). Calculator chips 6). Memory chips 7). Microprocessors 8). Timers 9). Micro controllers 10). Coder 11). Encoder 12). Multiplexes 13). De-Multiplexes 14). Digital to analogue converter chips 15). Analogue to digital converter chips

Figure 8.20 – a digital logic Quad and gate

Classification of ICs

Applications of ICs

Applications of digital and linear circuits are as below:

Linear circuits are normally used in radars, communication systems, aircraft, television, space vehicles, oscilloscopes, audio and video cassette recorders etc.

Digital Integrated circuits are frequently used in calculators, computers, clocks, digital watches etc. Further, its use in modern electronic test instruments (e.g. digital meters, frequency counters and logic probes etc.) is also quite common.

Common applications of all linear and digital Integrated circuits are described as follows

Operational amplifiers, counters, oscillators, coders, decoders, function generators, radio, tv, modules, memories, voltage regulators and communication converters etc.


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My name is Shahzada Fahad and I am an Electrical Engineer. I have been doing Job in UAE as a site engineer in an Electrical Construction Company. Currently, I am running my own YouTube channel "Electronic Clinic", and managing this Website. My Hobbies are * Watching Movies * Music * Martial Arts * Photography * Travelling * Make Sketches and so on...

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