5G, The Design of wireless technology from 1G to 5G



The Design of Wireless Technology from 1G to 5G- The world has become a globe and fast-changing. Our business, our relations, and our establishments are broadcast all over the planet. It is the basic desire to communicate and send needful data to each other oneself or conjointly, accurately, safely, and in a short time. Due to these key requirements, wireless technologies face tremendous changes in very less time as compared to other fields.

Challengeable improvements are seen by technology which is very warm and unique refinements and its able wireless technology to take its first step in the field of communication technology in the 1980s with the name of zero generation “0G” technology also known as radio wireless transmission technology. The privilege in 0G was voice only, but it was a heart touching analysis to qualify transmission from gross connection to free wire.

As a result, wireless technology became a pointed focus of researchers to make it more optimized and prior. On behalf of consecutive growth of hungry demands to make wireless technology more efficient, the “1G” joined the journey. It was consists of an analog circuit switch technology system. Later on, “1G” improved to a digital system and was named 2nd generation “2G” technology.

The performance in voice and data transfer was good with a speed up to 64kbps. Then “2G” jumped to “2.5G” with increment in speed only up to 144kbps. At the starting point, this velocity was judged a big attainment in technology however with expansion in the number of users, the given speed became restricted by reason of it became a specific direction for analyzers to get extra momentum for maintaining the technology according to demand. So it led to “3G” 3rd generation with having key targets of high data rate transmission and enlarge capacity for voice calling. Speed is used by 3G with more data rates in Mb/s than former generations.

The significance objectives of 3G are to impart each and every information like (video calls, high data transfer and IP etc.) with a broad range services. It’s range up to 2Mbps which made a clear difference in voice and data transmission from earlier technology. This fastest uninterrupted journey then enters to “3.5G” with promotion in speed up to 14Mbps. International mobile telephon2000(IMT-2000) project lunched the “3G” requirements with the basic of UMTS-HSPA ,CDMA- 2000 EV-DO and WiMAX .

In addition the highlights of these modern techniques in technology, now the world has become a globe and researchers are doing their foremost to make it progressively advance by virtue of which the technology has moved to “4G”. 4G is the successor of “3G” and proceeded to “5G”. By means of high data rates from 3G, it is also called “MAGIC”. Subscribers can yield advantages from 4G pole to pole. At the end of 4G, another part of it feed on called LTE (long term evolution).

LTE is a type of 4G which provides more reliable and convenient wireless and internet broadband services. Now investigators can’t stop these everlasting improvements in wireless technology services by reason of hungry demands of capacity and bandwidths. So the next generation, which is expected with more advanced facilities and a high data rate, is “5G”. It will formulate a unique and key contrast from the rest technologies. The speed of 5G will be considered in Gbps. According to 5G, it must build a key role with various services, data transfer, and giving benefits to the upcoming generation over 4G. 5G will transmute pattern of life in each category from the other Gs.

A user would be able to access his/her desired information without any hurdle and interruption with the fastest speed and lowest latency. It will make a real change in the whole globe. The entire techniques regarding to business, education, health, organizations, and marketing will convert to internet technology. People will find it easier and would be able to buy and sell their products in a rapid way and would share their information with high bandwidth from everywhere and anytime without any error. It will give a major experience to its users. 5G will be consisting of a fully packet circuit switching system with wide area coverage. It would also be denoted by the name of world wireless wide web (wwww). The evaluations in technology are shown in Fig 1:

5G, cellular generations 1G 2G 3G 4G 5G


The wireless cellular system is divided into different generations in regard to step by step needed changes. These changes are shown in Fig: 2 and Fig: 3.



In the 1980s, a communication system was launched in North America on the basis of a technology named AMPS (analog mobile phone system). 1G was fully consisted of an analog system with the permission of only voice service. Other services are as follow:

  • MIMO less
  • Based on the circuit switch
  • Time-consuming and low battery life of user device
  • Without privacy
  • Used frequency modulation for radio signaling
  • Frequency bandwidth from 280 to 900MHz
  • No data service available
  • Advance mobile telephone system, Mobile telephone system, improved mobile telephone system and push to talk were the key standards technologies for 1G.
  • Channel capacity was multiplexed on the basis of FDMA (frequency division multiple access) technique.

This G came with many limitations, like poor quality of service, low speed, high latency, security less, unreliable service, and was impossible for the use of global communications, etc, but except all these failures, it was really a big jump in the field of technology. The number of users increased from hundreds to millions and that was the key focus towards wireless technology.  Some pictures of devices used by 1G are shown in Fig: 4


The 1990s brought a new revolution in the field of technology in the form of converting the analog systems into a digital one. It is represented by 2G which stands for the second generation. Due to various advantages, this technology is still used in some parts of the world. 2G speed performance was further improved by reaching 64kbps with additional better voice quality, email, SMS (short message services), MMS, picture messaging, and data transfer services. This system based on the circuit switch system also encompasses the old generation. Two techniques of modulation are used for this technology system, being represented by TDMA (time division multiple access) and CDMA (code division multiple access) respectively with 900 to 1900MHz band of frequency. The mission of TDMA is to divide signals into time slots while CDMA would generate a special code for each user in order to communicate a multiplex physical channel. The standard of “2G” GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) technology enables the cell phone users to use the cell phone connection in different countries of the world with the provision of better efficiency and capacity. The team of GSM which helps in additional services from the past generation is:

  • Base station subsystem shortly can be written as (BSS)
    • Base transceiver station (BTS)
    • Base station controller (BSC)
  • Network switching subsystem (NSS)
    • Mobile switching center (MSC)
    • Visitor location register (VLR)
    • Home location register (HLR)
    • Authentication center (AC)
    • Equipment Identity register (EIR)

Figure: 5 show the architecture of GSM for the purpose of easily understanding.


In 2000 a new technology “3G” loaded with storm changes under the standard of IMT-2000. Speed jump from kbps to Mbps by 3G technology also called Tri-Band technology. All working elements of 3G are signed by international telecommunication union (ITU). The responsibilities of 3G are video conferencing calls, high speed many times more than 2G, large bandwidth, less latency, low cost, HSPA (high speed packet access), GPS (global poisoning services) and availability of internet everywhere. Uses packet switching network but fully packet switching which is may become reason of error. Every country uses separate standard of 3G technology.3G adopt 3 standards of technology

  1. a) CDMA2000 America standard
  2. b) WCDMA Europe standard
  3. c) TD-SCDMA China Standard

1.8 to 2.5GHz is frequency band for 3G Europe explores a new technology service due to rapid growth of consumers and to make the system more comfortable in same 3G called UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication). UMTS make it possible to connect different standards of technology with each other in entire world. Via UMTS it’s become easy for us to network satellites and other sources. It behaves like virtual home environment (VHE) and gives fully support in high quality of service.


With incrimination the stream of users the demand of better service and low error rate not leaving the technology at a constant position. So after all of achievements this technology also faces many limitations, like expensive than 2G, need more band width for the sake more users and covering large area. To support 3G limitations, 4G with more advanced speed was implemented by researchers.


In wireless technology 4G is the successor version of 3G and 2G services, took its responsibility in the field of communication in the year of 2012. It is IP based system that allows access to radio interface. Having ability of speed is up to 100 Mbps, with privacy and high QOS. 4G support its users as per their demand criteria from anywhere anytime . The visions of 4G are

  • Availability of video conferencing without any hurdle.
  • Help in high security to user information as a result achieve the focus of billions.
  • Low cost than 3G for the purpose of getting trust of any level of user.
  • More speed more capacity can handle multiple users at a time without making distortion.
  • Fully packet switching network technology which is playing key role in global mobility and individual services.
  • Its standard technologies are LTE (Long term evolution) and WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access).
  • Support terminal mobility on the basis of location and hand off techniques.
  • IP-based improved by 4G from IPv4 to IPv6 to overcome the boundaries in network connections. This IPv6 provide unique address to each user in a specific coverage area and when user moved from one area to  another then new address will be provide with  consider invalid the old one .
  • Ultra wide band technology and uses smart antenna to fulfill the target.
  • MIMO (multiple in and multiple out) and SON (self organize network).

Sometimes 4G referred to MAGIC which indicates:

M: mobile multimedia 

A: any time any where 

G: global mobility support

 I: integrated wireless solution 

C: customized personal service


OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiple) and SC-FDMA (single carrier frequency division multiple access) use for uplink and down link by LTE, Which are totally change from 2G and 3G standards.


Low battery life, complex techniques difficult to implement in 3rd world countries are the demerits of 4G. Due to new cell phones like I-phone Samsung increase demand of wireless technology. Growth of
the users is great effect on the speed so as soon this technology also will become limited due to high requirements.

The next step in evolution of technology is 5G. What are our outlooks about 5G? How it should be? What hurdles will it handle? Why we need the go forward? These are the questions in our mind before birth of 5G. As it is fact subscribers are much satisfied from 4G technology, but with the passage of time due to fast increase of demand it will become box of errors like earlier technologies because with high graph of user the graph of error ratio also will increase exponentially. So it is essential to set up a new way of technology before going down current wireless services. Here we will propose a number of categories about 5 G technologies that how much it will useful for users.


  • It will support all significant of modern technology.
  • High efficiency and fulfill huge demand.
  • Large battery timing and less power consumption.
  • Simple functions easily understood by users.
  • Convert entire world to home environment.
  • Reliable, zero limitations, fastest speed, enhance range and no disturbance to access data.
  • Fully without wire connected and extremely helpful to worldwide wireless web (WWWW).
  • Performance in quality of service will better, security and range with errorless services.
  • E-transaction supported with high privacy.
  • As like 4G technology referred to “MAGIC “Same here the 5G will be represent by the word “WISDOM” means (wireless innovative system for dynamic operating mega communication concept).
  • Reduce use of probability and hence the data rate will be increase automatically.
  • Will show itself a good company within each field like education, medical sports, media and Business etc.
  • Can upload and download bundle of data in seconds.
  • Will complete major tasks in less time. With massive and stream MIMO standards.
  • Should be handling every form of languages by using simple programming that can get the focus of illiterate’s users.
  • One of the most and key feature of 5G will be that it’s all software will friendly to user.
Interests factors 1G 2G 3G 4G 5G
Starting unit 1980 1990 2000 2011 2020

rate speed

2kbps 64kbps 2Mbps 100Mbps 1Gbps and over
Availability of services Voice technology only, less capacity Voice, SMS,MMS Large capacity Voice + video With high data rate More clear voice + HD videos and access from every where More speed, more clear voice and HD videos and support all standards
Switching based Circuit form Circuit + packet form Packet form Fully PacketForm Fully packet with high power
Technology Analog based Digital based IP + broadband Advance IP + broad band of LAN,WAN & WLAN Combination of

WWW,LAN, WLAN, PAN and WAN + improved IP



Our fundamental aim from new generation of technology is quality of service. Because everything will be performing 5G due to quality of service. The quality of 5G will be too high that subscribers have never experienced such service. It will support in medicine, 3D animations, business, agriculture and other aspects of life with fully trust. It will provide additional security that no any user can access the other user data without permission. Provide the services will be in nanoseconds and more work on less energy. It will be a self-organized network can easily handle the problems. A user can buy and sell their desire product from everywhere anytime with high and large broadcasting with a speed of Gbps. the human interaction will be less. HD quality videos and pictures will be the vision of 5G which will play a great role in security purposes. 5G will be consist of new policies of IP and reduce complexity of network. Many functions will be performing by a single device so use of more devices will be reduced. A user can access to their required information individually or in unity while him or her in world of 5G. It will also provide all formats of applications to the user which will be supported by each device. 5G will have the ability to support easily the old and new service. All devices will be consisting of voice, video, picture, graph, shape and data search. It will control the transfer of data according to machine and user demand. The measurement and traffic control of data is the key of QOS.
There are three fundamental components for basic QoS implementation:
Identification and marking techniques for coordinating Qi’s from end to end between network elements.
Qi’s within a single network element.  QoS policy, management, and accounting functions to control and administer end-to-end traffic across a network. It will have also the quality of cleaning device itself from garbage data and taking power itself from sun and other sources.


How could we utilize “5G”?

  • We can check sugar level, blood pressure temperature, and other diseases of our parents and elders using advance AI devices.
  • We can find the health of baby in mother womb and birth of time.
  • We can vote to our dearest from own hand sets while the election going on in country without any ragging.
  • We can find the timing cost of transport vehicles and air planes and book our seats from home or can delay and change.
  • We can turn on and off our machines, cell phone and to who we want to be in contact to who want be escape according to our won desire.
  • We can enjoy weathers can get information about the weather, situation and walk of life of other countries.
  • A machine can be used according to our mood. We can check our industries our sweet places on the purpose of security reason from far away distance.
  • Our handsets and other machines can clean unused data by itself. Can detect natural storm like earth quick, flood etc.
  • Can pay our bills from cell phones without any delay.
  • We can search our job in other countries and they can take our interview and check of documents via on air. 5G can check the quality of product and food in nanosecond so we could be safe from harmful things.
  • We can be able to find a location and famous markets online.
  • We can order from everywhere in globe
  • We can get a lot about the nature about the bottom of sea and space.
  • We can know benefits of the food we eat, the nature we see and product we use.
  • We can hide our data from the access of other users.
  • We can use it for the purpose military.
  • We can know about each and every person.
  •  We can store our large data for large time.
  • We can access to relevant data from any corner of world.
  • It will specially overcome on diseases, means it will help to finding out the pointed disease and we can find solution of the disease using support of for away doctors in short duration of time.

Engr Fahad

My name is Shahzada Fahad and I am an Electrical Engineer. I have been doing Job in UAE as a site engineer in an Electrical Construction Company. Currently, I am running my own YouTube channel "Electronic Clinic", and managing this Website. My Hobbies are * Watching Movies * Music * Martial Arts * Photography * Travelling * Make Sketches and so on...

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